Thursday, March 19, 2020

The focus must shift from climate change to poverty reduction in order to make tourism in developing countries more sustainable. Critically evaluate this statement. The WritePass Journal

The focus must shift from climate change to poverty reduction in order to make tourism in developing countries more sustainable. Critically evaluate this statement. Abstract The focus must shift from climate change to poverty reduction in order to make tourism in developing countries more sustainable. Critically evaluate this statement. AbstractIntroductionClimate Change and SustainabilityPoverty Reduction and SustainabilitySustainability in Developing Countries: The IntersectionConclusionReferencesRelated Abstract The creation of a sustainable tourism industry in a developing country will necessarily have an important impact on the economic and social development of that country because of the ability of the sector to attract capital to the country. In economies where there is little diversification, this is an important consequence. Poverty reduction strategies as the focus of creating a sustainable tourism sector will have important consequences for the industry as a whole. Included in these consequences are the realization of certain objectives related to climate control which has been the focus of sustainable tourism efforts in the recent past. It stands to reason therefore that a shift in emphasis towards poverty reduction strategies enforced by important policy developments will have a broader social and economic impact, which includes the achievement of environmental objectives and climate change concerns. The shift in focus therefore towards poverty reduction is more desirable as a str ategy for sustainable tourism in developing countries as it recognizes the spectrum of issues plaguing these countries, rather than focusing on one aspect thereof. Introduction Sustainability as a goal of tourism is a complicated question and as to goal of tourism in developing countries, one needs to understand the broader social, economic and political circumstances relevant to country itself in terms of broader tourism considerations. Mvula (2001; p. 394) suggests that sustainable tourism â€Å"requires that the local host population achieves rising standards of living and that the tourist guests are satisfied with the product and either return to the area or recommend it to others.† Included in this definition of sustainability, Mvula (2001) adds that this requires conservation of wildlife and the local environment. One can observe therefore that sustainability in tourism requires more than simply focusing on either climate change or poverty reduction. It is therefore the assertion of this paper that the focus of tourism in developing countries is one which does not necessarily focus on climate change or poverty reduction to the exclusion of the other, and that these two strategies are mutually reinforcing, rather than exclusive and in order to ensure sustainability in developing countries, both strategies will need to be employed as they in effect rely on one another. It stands to reason however that a shift in poverty reduction as the focus of sustainability in tourism will have the effect of ensuring that climate change objectives are met. The essential element of a shift towards poverty reduction will be the inclusion of policy objectives which implement these strategies. As will be argued, the achievement of climate change objectives may be achieved as a byproduct of implementation of poverty reduction strategies and therefore a shift in focus may have the result of achieving this objective where previous attempts have failed. Climate Change and Sustainability Ashley et al. (2000) note that the increased awareness in eco-tourism and community tourism arose in the 1980’s from an awareness that tourism should not erode the cultural and environmental base on which it relies. This arguably is another way of recognizing that tourism efforts should make sustainable, rather than exhaustible use of a country’s resources. Becken and Hay (2007) describe the climate for the purposes of tourism as both a resource and an essential ingredient in the product offering of a destination. Indeed, the tourism industry of a destination may be inextricably linked to the climate conditions of that area, such as skiing destinations. Climate change therefore may threaten the sustainability of the region by causing extreme and unpredictable variations in the expected weather patterns, causing potentially harmful consequences, such as hurricanes and floods. Not only does this threaten the sustainability of the local tourism industry, but also damages t ourism infrastructure (Becken Hay, 2007). One can observe therefore the link between climate change and sustainability, as climate change will threaten the sustainability of the tourism industry. Understanding the link between climate change and sustainability allows a tourism sector in a developing country to adapt to the challenges presented by the issue. The problem however lies in the fact that the industry is plagued with an ‘immobility problem’ where the tourists will simply move to another destination, as a result of relative inability of a local tourism industry to adapt to these climate changes (Aall Hoyer, 2005). Becken and Hay (2007) note this dilemma by stating that the problems associated with climate control are external to the tourism industry of a place as there is little that a country can do to mitigate changes in the climate. Indeed, the focus of climate change with regards to sustainability is on the socio-economic consequences thereof and the relative inability of developing countries to understand the variables associated with climate change allowing them to adapt tourism operations accordingly (Weaver, 2011). Despite these difficulties, th e focus of sustainable tourism on climate change is arguably essential for what can be described as a broader sustainability dilemma. Simply stated, this recognizes that climate change is a matter of significant international concern which is not going to disappear at any point (Scott, 2011). The inclusion of climate change objectives in sustainable tourism therefore should be recognized as an inclusion for a broader societal purpose which is equally relevant to developing countries. Climate change therefore in tourism reflects the need for conservation efforts protecting the local environment and biodiversity, as well as using sustainable techniques which will reduce climate change factors, such as green house gases (McKercher et al., 2010; Becken Hay, 2007) Poverty Reduction and Sustainability With climate change being the focus of sustainable tourism in the 1980s (Ashley et al., 2000), one could argue that poverty reduction or Pro Poor Tourism (‘PPT’) has become the focus of sustainable tourism in the 2000s (Hall, 2007). PPT is that which generates a net benefit for the poor regardless of sector or product. The benefits of PPT may be economic, social, cultural or environmental, and rather than relating to a specific benefit to a class of persons, it refers to an overall benefit that is the result of the priority given to poverty issues (Ashley Roe, 2002). Poverty reduction through sustainable tourism recognizes the use of tourism as a means for economic development. PPT refers to the relationship between poverty reduction strategies and tourism development in developing countries (Hall, 2007). There are a number of important economic consequences of the implementation of PPT strategies for poverty reduction, chief of which being the capacity of economic development and the ability of the industry to diversify the economy (Goodwin Roe, 2001). This relates in part to the development of employment opportunities and opportunities for small enterprise development in order to support the local tourism industry. In developing countries, singularities in the economy are often seen and therefore the opportunity to create employment outside of this is an important consequence. Ashley and Roe (2002) recognize three categories of PPT strategies, which includes increasing access of economic benefits to the poor through expanding business opportunities, in terms of employment, training and income; addressing the negative social and environmental impacts of tourism; and using policy objectives as a measure of ensuring sustainability of these objectives. One can observe therefore that the shift in focus towards poverty reduction for the purposes of sustainability does not necessarily exclude priority given to climate change objectives. Indeed, environmental objectives which have been set as a priority in terms of international environmental protocols are often observed as a byproduct of PPT objectives (Sheyvens, 2011) These considerations are particularly relevant in the context of developing countries as often there are political and economic difficulties which prevent the effective implementation of poverty reduction strategies that have typically been used in other regions (Sheyvens, 2007). Often the political and economic factors of developing countries include the monopoly over certain economic activities (such as mineral extraction and agriculture) and with the introduction of these strategies through the tourism industry, arguably policy objectives are realizing a realistic possibility for the achievement of poverty reduction. It does so by offering opportunities for sustainable growth (Manyara Jones, 2007), although it is generally acknowledged that this depends on effective marketplace value, quality of the product developed and establishing meaningful partnerships between the public and private sector, and the community (WTO, 2002). The adoption of these strategies however is also large ly dependent on the implementation of effective policy measures which will ensure that this remains a priority in the tourism sector and the broader economy generally (Ashley et al., 2000). This is built from the realization that community based tourism products and sector tourism, such as eco-tourism and nature tourism are ineffective as an overall strategy towards attaining poverty reduction objectives (Sheyvens, 2007). Sustainability in Developing Countries: The Intersection The United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) has identified both poverty reduction along with climate change as challenges to the global tourism industry, whereby a commitment is needed to ensure balanced and equitable policies in order to address the identified issues (Ashley Roe, 2002; WTO, 2002). The intersection between the focus on climate change and poverty reduction in creating a sustainable tourism industry in developing countries is arguably two sides of the same coin. Participation in PPT has a number of important consequences for developing countries, such as human and financial capital, social capital and organizational strength, gender participation, a positive effect on livelihood strategies and aspirations, impact on the location itself, land ownership and tenure, planning gain, regulation and access to the tourism market (Ashley et al., 2000). One can argue that the extensive impacts of PPT will have the effect of improving the tourism sector in the developing country as a whole. In theory, this has the potential to create a self-enforcing cycle of development, whereby the improved facilities and characteristics of the location, with the improved support services and products will have the effect of diversifying the tourism industry. This in turn has the potential to attract further tourism capital and investment. This positive association with poverty reduction strategies includes the outcomes of sustainability that are intentioned with reg ards to climate change objectives. The creation of a sustainable tourism sector in a developing country therefore through the implementation of poverty reduction strategies has been noted for the overall improvement which it provides for the country, creating not only sustainability in the tourism industry of the country itself, but also in the overall sustainable development of the country’s economy (Cabezes, 2008). In the context of the Dominican Republic, it was noted that the use of these strategies had a positive effect on the political and financial stability of the country, as well as the inclusion of poor members of society in the markets (ibid). Higgins-Desbiolles (2006) similarly notes the transformative capacity that tourism focused on poverty reduction has on the social and economic standing of a developing country. Conclusion It is clear therefore that the creation of a sustainable tourism industry in a developing country is one which requires consideration of a number of complex social, economic and political factors. It requires an understanding of the relationship between the various stakeholders in the tourism industry in the country itself. It stands to reason that focus on climate change objectives are not precluded by a shift in focus towards poverty reduction, as the literature indicates that a byproduct of this focus is necessarily that the nature and eco-tourism of the country will be positively affected as this invariably forms a part of the tourism resources of that country. Becken and Hay (2007) note the role that the natural environment of a country plays as an essential part of the product offering of the country and as such, the implementation of policies aimed at inclusion of poor members of society may have the impact of improving this resource. Arguably however, this is not necessarily a natural consequence of PPT and the implementation of poverty reduction strategies will necessitate the inclusion of climate change objectives to ensure that the exploitation of these natural resources is managed in a sustainable manner. The end result of the implementation of these strategies is an overall betterment of the poor members of society and to the extent that climate change objectives are not inclusive of an essential partnership in the creation of sustainability, these objectives will fail. The clear advantage that PPT has in creating a sustainable tourism sector lies in the fact that it includes all relevant stakeholders in the tourism industry, as well as speculating for meaningful methods of enforcing these objectives. In so doing, it allows for the creation of sustainability through transforming local economies, creating employment opportunities, bettering the overall standing of members of the local community, exploiting natural resources in a sustainable manner ( therefore achieving climate change objectives) and offering measures of accountability to ensure that these objectives are in the forefront of policy consideration. References Aall, C. Hoyer, K. (2007) Tourism and Climate Change Adaptation. In Hall, C. Higham, J. (eds) Tourism, Recreation and Climate Change. Clevedan: Cromwell Press. Ashley, C and Roe, D (2002) Making Tourism Work for the Poor: Strategies and Challenges in S. Africa. Development Southern Africa 19 (1) 61-82. Ashley, C., Boyd, C. Goodwin, H. (2000) Pro Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty at the heart of the tourism agenda. Natural Resource Perspectives, 51. Department for International Development Becken, S and Hay, J (2007) Tourism and Climate Change. Channel View Cabeza, A (2008) Tropical Blues: Tourism and Social Exclusion in the Dominican Republic. Latin American Perspectives 35 pp.21-36 Cleverdon, R and Kalisch, A (2000) Fair Trade in Tourism.International Journal of Tourism Research 2 pp.171-187 Goodwin, H and Roe, A (2001) Tourism, Livelihoods and Protected Areas.   Int Journal of Tourism Research 3 pp.377-391 Hall, CM and Higham, J (2005) Tourism, Recreation and Climate Change. Channel View Hall, M. (2007) Pro-Poor Tourism: Do ‘Tourism Exchanges Benefit Primarily the Countries of the South’? Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), pp. 111-118 Hall, C. Higham, J. (2007) Tourism, Recreation and Climate Change. Clevedan: Cromwell Press. Higgins-Desbiolles, F (2006) More than an ‘‘industry’’: The forgotten power of tourism as a social force. Tourism Management 27 pp.1192–1208. Manyara, G. Jones, E. (2007) Community-based Tourism Enterprises Development in Kenya: An Exploration of Their Potential as Avenues of Poverty Reduction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(6), pp. 628 – 644. McKercher, B., Prideaux, B.,   Cheung, C. Law, R. (2010) Achieving voluntary reductions in the carbon footprint of tourism and climate change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(3), pp. 297-317 Mvula, C. (2001) Fair Trade in Tourism to Protected Areas – A micro case study of wildlife tourism to South Luangwa National Park Zambia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3, pp. 393 405 Scott, D. (2011) Why sustainable tourism must address climate change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(1), pp. 17-34 Scheyvens, R (2011) Tourism and Poverty, London: Routledge Scheyvens ,R. (2007) Exploring the Tourism-Poverty Nexus. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2-3), pp. 231-254 Weaver, D (2010) Can Sustainable Tourism Survive Climate Change? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(1), 5-15 World Tourism Organization (WTO) (2002) Tourism and Poverty Reduction. Madrid:WTO

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Tentative and Tenterhooks

Tentative and Tenterhooks Tentative and Tenterhooks Tentative and Tenterhooks By Maeve Maddox The other day I listened to a radio interview in which the subject continually pronounced the word tentative without one of its ts. Tentative has three ts: ten-ta-tive (not ten-a-tive). Another t word that often has its medial t messed with is tenterhook. Its an old word derived from cloth-making, but it remains current in the expression to be on tenterhooks, i.e., to be in a state of painful suspense. Ive heard people say tenderhooks. Tentative derives from Latin tentatus, a form of the verb tentare, to feel, to try. Its another form of temptare, to feel, to try, to test. which gives us the English word temptation. A tenter was a wooden framework for stretching cloth. It derives from Latin tentus, stretched. A tenter hook held the cloth on the tenter. Some will argue that these pronunciations are merely differences of region or dialect. Whatever the cause, pronouncing them that way leads to misspelling them and misspelled words damage the writers credibility. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Using "a" and "an" Before WordsStory Writing 10110 Varieties of Syntax to Improve Your Writing

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Roles of a Global Manager Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Roles of a Global Manager - Essay Example According to the Soviet-Belgian joint venture agreement, Wane Machines was supposed to send three experienced executives for the key managerial positions -– to serve as Rus Wayne’s deputy general manager, manufacturing manager, and financial manager for the first two or three years. After that, the Russians would take over the positions. The major objectives of this policy were to provide "assistance in technology and management skills transfer, management systems and processes development, and local personnel coaching." While the obstacles and the issues that came up in staffing were basically due to cultural differences, not all the issues arising out of culture difference would be handled here. This report focuses on the inefficiencies in cross-cultural communication that impacted the smooth functioning of this joint venture. The Soviet law insists that local managers should be in charge as they are most knowledgeable and capable of handling local situations although they do not insist that Soviet citizens should hold the senior-most position. Local nationals were taken in the positions of sales and service managers and human resources manager from the beginning as the knowledge of local and employment practices helps in overcoming these obstacles. These decisions were not implemented. The general manager could not send the three expatriates to Russia as per agreement nor was an HR manager appointed on schedule. The general manager wanted to play the role of HR manager as well. The deputy general manager, an American, sent to Russia had no experience of working in Russia but accepted the job because of career move. The manufacturing manager was from France and his interest in Russia was purely career development. The financial manager, an Englishman sent to Russia had merely 2 years of experience at Wane and hence they provided him training for 6 months before sending him to Russia.  

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Mencius On Human Nature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Mencius On Human Nature - Essay Example To account for how some people develop bad character in life despite having been born with the disposition to do good, Mencius argued that, just as water can be manipulated and forced to flow against the low ground, it is also possible to manipulate human nature to be bad. Mencius gave the following explanation to show that human nature is naturally good.Mencius argued that human beings are born with the virtue of benevolence (heart of compassion/feeling for others), virtue of Righteousness (the feeling of disdain), the virtue of propriety (feeling of respect for others), and lastly the virtue of wisdom (the heart of right and wrong). To demonstrate what he means by claiming that human beings are born with these four virtues, Mencius gave the following example to show that every human person is born with the virtue of benevolence.In this example, Mencius argued that if people saw a child about to fall into a well, they would all, without exception, instantaneously have a feeling of s orrow and fear. Mencius concluded that this fact shows that all human beings are born with the virtue of benevolence or the ability to feel compassion for other people. Another example that can be given to show that human beings are born with some virtues is how people, all over the world, are opposed to some immoral actions.For instance, people all over the world, irrespective of their cultural, religious, political, or educational backgrounds oppose some unethical practices like corruption and murder of innocent people.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Beloved: Analysis :: essays research papers

From the beginning, Beloved focuses on the import of memory and history. Sethe struggles daily with the haunting legacy of slavery, in the form of her threatening memories and also in the form of her daughter’s aggressive ghost. For Sethe, the present is mostly a struggle to beat back the past, because the memories of her daughter’s death and the experiences at Sweet Home are too painful for her to recall consciously. But Sethe’s repression is problematic, because the absence of history and memory inhibits the construction of a stable identity. Even Sethe’s hard-won freedom is threatened by her inability to confront her prior life. Paul D’s arrival gives Sethe the opportunity and the impetus to finally come to terms with her painful life history. Already in the first chapter, the reader begins to gain a sense of the horrors that have taken place. Like the ghost, the address of the house is a stubborn reminder of its history. The characters refer to the house by its number, 124. These digits highlight the absence of Sethe’s murdered third child. As an institution, slavery shattered its victims’ traditional family structures, or else precluded such structures from ever forming. Slaves were thus deprived of the foundations of any identity apart from their role as servants. Baby Suggs is a woman who never had the chance to be a real mother, daughter, or sister. Later, we learn that neither Sethe nor Paul D knew their parents, and the relatively long, six-year marriage of Halle and Sethe is an anomaly in an institution that would regularly redistribute men and women to different farms as their owners deemed necessary. The scars on Sethe’s back serve as another testament to her disfiguring and dehumanizing years as a slave. Like the ghost, the scars also work as a metaphor for the way that past tragedies affect us psychologically, â€Å"haunting† or â€Å"scarring† us for life. More specifically, the tree shape formed by the scars might symbolize Sethe’s incomplete family tree. It could also symbolize the burden of existence itself, through an allusion to the â€Å"tree of knowledge† from which Adam and Eve ate, initiating their mortality and suffering. Sethe’s â€Å"tree† may also offer insight into the empowering abilities of interpretation. In the same way that the white men are able to justify and increase their power over the slaves by â€Å"studying† and interpreting them according to their own whims, Amy’s interpretation of Sethe’s mass of ugly scars as a â€Å"chokecherry tree† transforms a story of pain and oppres sion into one of survival.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Farewell Speech Essay

Worthy principle respected teacher and my dear fellow student a.s.a. I am Alizeh Eman from class 9 girls. Today we all have gathered here to bid the matric class of our school our farewell. This academic year is about to come to an end. We all might say that we don’t like school or we want to get out of it as soon as we can but when it all really comes to an end we know we will really miss it.And I bet that all the matric class students understand this perfectly well since its really the end of school for them now. They have really gone through it all and will soon enter their pratical lives. I would like to take this opportunity to sincerely thank the matric class on behalf of my whole class. This batch of the matric class shall never be forgotten. They have really been ideal seniors for us. They have correctedus when we went wrong and have patted out backs on our achievements. They have not only been great seniors but they have also been great students. The have certainly studid as hard as they could and have made their teachers proud and have inspired us to do the same. They have guided not only us but the other juniors as well and have always tried to give in your best to lead us to the right path. Our matric class is now at a very important stage of life. This is where a new life begins for you. It gives great sorrow to do this, but we have to bid you our goodbyes. As you step forward into this new phase of your life, we hope for you to get the very best in life. We hope from God to keep you under his protection and bless you with a great future. We hope you remember us through the years of life Personally, and on the behalf of Class 9, Our teachers and respected principle, I wish you all the best in your says ahead.