Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Citizens of the United States of America are beyond blessed with certain rights and privileges. One of those rights and privileges we are grateful for is the very first amendment, and the first amendment is the right to freedom of speech. And the ongoing question is whether we should place limitations of the said amendment. My dad used to say Ã¢â¬Å"Without the freedom to offend we cannot fully and entirely have Freedom of speech.Ã¢â¬ Freedom of speech should be limited due to the array of dangerous ways it can be used. Anything can be seen as offensive. If a song is deemed as offensive by one person, does that mean the song is offensive and not protected by the bill of rights. Some things that seem inappropriate or obscene might hold value to it,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Our first amendment is not a license to abuse, our first amendment is a responsibility. The first amendment in further detail is, Ã¢â¬Å"First Amendment - Religion and Expression. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.Ã¢â¬ So how should we go on about putting limits on something when in the rule it says there should not be any obstacles. And why should we set limitations or boundaries in an amendment? Boundaries have to be set on the amendment because of those who can be hurt or can be offended . Offensive speech can come from everywhere, so either we can accept the crude song lyrics, racist remarks, and let people yell bomb in a busy and heavily populated airport. Or set laws and boundaries on what people are saying and where they say it. There should be limits on freedom of speech due to the array of dangerous ways it can be used. A few years back at Taft Union High School in California there was a school shooting. The shooter happened to be a student of that school, he planned the shooting the night before. He came to school late went straight to his class and pointed his shotgun at two students who people believed had bullied him both verbally and physically. Having limitations on this sort of speechShow MoreRelatedFree Speech : The Limits Of Freedom Of Speech1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReport To me Freedom of Speech is being able to say what you want, whenever you want but these days everything has become politically correct. I will explain to you what freedom of speech actually is, to what extent it is allowed, and the limits of it both online and in different countries. The definition of Freedom of Speech is the power or right to express ones opinions without censorship, restraint, or legal penalty. When freedom of speech allowed and to what extent? Freedom is speech is becomingRead MoreShould Freedom of Speech Have Limits?2085 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Should Freedom of Speech have Limits? Why or Why Not? Introduction First Amendment protection of free speech has long been recognized to be essential to democratic governance, in part because social progress would stagnate without the free exchange of ideas between citizens. However, there are practical limits to what constitutes protected free speech and these limits have been codified into law by Congress and enforced by the federal courts. This essay will argue that the First Amendment isRead MoreFreedom of Speech in America and Its Limits Essay2413 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesdemocratic nations in the world, the United States has had its own fair share of issues with hate speech. There has been a lot of controversy over whether hate speech should be regulated. In analyzing the concept of free speech, one cannot ignore that it does not occur in a vacuum. There have been all types of debasements ranging from ethnic, religious, racial and gendered stereotyping. Freedom of speech inherently includes all other fundamental human rights. Hence, as acknowled ged through natural rightsRead MoreEssay on Social Networking: Limits to Privacy and Freedom of Speech1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages According to the first amendment, citizens of the United States are guaranteed freedom of speech. My older friends and family members tell me that that is true, or at least it used to be. In our current generation there is one major factor of society where freedom of speech is extremely limited. That part of society is social networking. This leaves me to, is our generation free to express our opinions whenever we feel the urge? According to Oscar GandyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1993) perspective, Ã¢â¬Å"we probably doRead MoreThe Fundamental Principles Of The Us Constitution1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof the US Constitution is the freedom of speech. Something so ingrained in the country, that it is often an afterthought for many Americans. John Stuart Mill believes that freedom of expression and speech is a necessity for the human race to advance and evolve. MillÃ¢â¬â¢s justification of this absolute freedom come from the understanding that mistakes and choices made by the person leads to pro gress and the development of your individual self. He also argues that speech must be absolute because the onlyRead MoreFree Speech : Freedom Of Speech1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFREE SPEECH Freedom of speech is perhaps the most precious tenets of liberal democracies accorded to the citizens of the free world. The United States, and the rest of the Western society is known to be the cradle of democratic principles, and this can be evidenced by the level of freedom accorded to the citizens of the United States and the West in terms of speech. The freedom of speech gives an individual an opportunity to speak his or her mind and also give his or her opinion, sometimes on veryRead MoreFree Speech : The Benefits Of Freedom Of Speech805 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof time ever conjectured how the term freedom of speech is expressed? Freedom of speech is more than the ordinary everyday concept of the synchronization and harmony of speaking freely. In this response, we will strongly scrutinize origins and benefits regarding free speech, circumstances that may restrict free speech, free speech in Canada and determine protesters objection to Jordan Peterson. Without any hesitation, let us enact the importance of free speech concerning if campus debate should beRead MoreFree Speech vs Hate Speech Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFree Speech vs. Harmful Hate Speech Freedom of speech is instilled at the beginning of the Bill of Rights and it allows citizens of the United States to express their opinions without being afraid of what might happen to them, much like in other countries. Many times people are directly or indirectly harmed by othersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions that are considered a right under the freedom of speech clause. Though, some people worry that if we do not allow for complete freedom of speech, it is hard to figure outRead MoreFreedom of Speech Mill and Freiberg1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMEANINGFUL FREEDOM Freedom of speech is the key element of the real democracies. Freedom of speech is also concerned to the idea that people can speak freely without being stopped, or censored. Freedom of speech is briefly hallmark of democracy because democracy is based on independent thoughts of people. In a democratic society people are allowed to express their views freely and peacefully. There will be no democracy if freedom of speech isnt granted to people. Where there is freedom ofRead MoreFreedom Of Speech : Free Speech1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFreedom Of Speech In 399 B.C, the Greek Philosopher Socrates was persecuted for an early argument promoting free speech. Later on, The Protection of Speech was first introduced when the Magna Carta was signed in 1215, and in 1948, the United Nations stated that free speech is a human right and drafted into the international Declaration of Human rights.The government doesn t have the right to make a law abridging the freedom of speech because Free Speech is a form of democracy and it s a fundamental
Monday, December 23, 2019
In economics, we study four basic market structures. Each market structure possesses different characteristics to one another and these characteristics are what affect the degree of competition and pricing. A monopoly and perfect competition are positioned at both ends of the spectrum while oligopoly and monopolistic competition are in the middle of the two. However, the one market structure we will be focusing on is perfect competition. The main characteristics of this market structure are all products sold are homogenous, all firms are price takers, consumers have complete information when purchasing goods, all firms have little market share and there are no barriers to entry or exit. In this essay I will be describing how firms in aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They must also be able to meet their variable costs just to keep running and must also be able to develop the new low cost technology to keep up with the other firms in the carrot industry. The graph below can be used to show how the average firms fixed costs and average total costs decrease due to the lower cost technology. In the short run the firms fixed costs would decrease from AFC1 to AFC2 and therefore the average total cost would also be reduced from ATC1 down to ATC2. Like I previously mentioned above, firms that do not possess this technology must be able to produce revenue that at least meets their average variable costs in the short run. However, Lipsey and Chrystal state that Ã¢â¬Å"If its revenue is less than its variable cost at every level of output, the firm will actually lose more by producing than not producingÃ¢â¬ . Now that I have described what occurs in the short run when firms acquire new low cost technology, this brings us over to the long run. Like I mentioned beforehand, in the long run all fixed costs eventually become variable costs. Firms that did not previously possess the low cost equipment used to produce carrots and had managed to stay In business by meeting their variable costs would now been able to also develop and obtain the required technology to reduce their costs too. Therefore, all firms in the carrot market will now possess theShow MoreRelatedShort-Run vs. Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curves644 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThere are some significant differences in the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curves. The short-run curve can be said to only apply to the short-run, and is not applicable in the long-run (No author, 2012). The difference between the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curve is assumed to be that there is a period after the price of a good or service increases but the factor inputs have not adjusted yet to this increase. A basic example would be a service provider raising prices, butRead MoreManagerial Economics Chapter 9 Essay1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswant at the market price. Which of the following statement is true when the difference between TR and TC is at its maximum positive value? MR=MC AND Slope of TR= Slope of TC When maximizing profits, MR = MC is equivalent to P = MC because The marginal revenue curve for a perfectly competitive firm is the same as its demand curve. Perfectly competitive firms should produce the quantity where The difference between total revenue and total cost is as large as possible. Profit for a perfectlyRead MoreMicro Economics Short Run Versus Long Run1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMicro Economic Exam Long Run versus Short Run 1. Introduction Competitive market equilibrium is the traditional concept of economic equilibrium, appropriate for the analysis of commodity markets with flexible prices and many traders. It relies crucially on the assumption of a competitive environment where each trader decides upon a quantity that is so small compared to the total quantity traded in the market that their individual transactions have no influence on the prices. This paperRead MoreWhat Are the Benefits of Mobile Technology1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis accompanied by an increase in the quantity demanded. | Save Question 2 (5 points) Ã A supply curve that is parallel to the horizontal axis suggests that: | 1) | the industry is organized monopolistically. | | 2) | the relationship between price and quantity supplied is inverse. | | 3) | a change in demand will change price in the same direction. | | 4) | a change in demand will change the equilibrium quantity but not price. | Save Question 3 (5 points) Ã An antidrug policyRead MoreQuestions On The Interest Rate977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseuro interest rate is 6 percent, and the expected return on dollar depreciation against the euro is zero percent, then (a) An investor should invest only in dollars. (b) An investor should invest only in euros. (c) An investor should be indifferent between dollars and euros. (d) It is impossible to tell given the information. (e) All of the above. 7. If the dollar interest rate is 10 percent, the euro interest rate is 6 percent, and the expected return on dollar depreciation against the euro is fourRead MoreThe Effect Of Monetary Policy On Determination Of Coal Prices1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestested using the Dickey Fuller generalized least squares (DF-GLS) test (Elliott et al., 1996). Panel A of Table 1 reports the results of the DF-GLS test. Since the null hypothesis of a unit root cannot (can) be rejected for any of the levels (first differences) of the three variables at the 5% level, all the series are found to be nonstationary I(1) processes. It should be emphasized, however, that because of inability of the DF-GLS to capture the possibility of a structural break, the power of the testRead MoreEconomics954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesopportunity cost in another situation then they will leave and do that. Normal profit is the minimum return, or cost necessary to keep the firm going. 5. (Short Run Versus Long Run) What distinguishes a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s short-run period from its long-run period? a. In the short run the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resources may be fixed so it cannot change its output. In the long run all resources are available and the firm can change its output and size. 6. (Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns) As a farmer, you must decide how manyRead MoreThe Market Structures Of A Market Structure962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescomparison and contrast is necessary to distinguish each of these theories from one another. These market structures of the economy are perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. These market structures will reveal the difference and similarities that each one has. Firstly, the perfection competition is a market structure that has four assumptions that define what it is to be in this market. The four assumptions include the following it has many sellers and buyers, itRead MoreEconomics Perfectly Competitive Market Structure Essay1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesselect the output level at which the difference between the marginal revenue and marginal cost is greatest. This is equivalent to selecting the output where the spread between total revenue and total cost is greatest. In the short-run, it is possible for an individual firm to make an economic profit. This situation is shown in this diagram, as the price or average revenue, denoted by P, is above the average cost denoted by C . However, in the long period, economic profit cannot be sustainedRead MoreMonopoly and Discussion Board Posts1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageselastic good. 2. Externalities Explain the difference between a positive and negative externality. In your analysis, make sure to provide an example of each type of externality. Why does the government need to get involved with externalities to bring about market efficiency? WhatÃ solutions need to be provided for your examples? Guided Response : Review the discussion board posts of your classmates. What are some of the key differences between positive and negative externality? Respond to
Sunday, December 15, 2019
g [pic] Faculty of engineering Civil engineering department ENCS 314 Building material lab Experiment No. 1516 Ã¢â¬Å"Determination of water content used to prepare gypsum samples and the determination of the final setting for gypsumÃ¢â¬ Prepared by: Rasha Abed 1031107 Partners: Hazem NoÃ¢â¬â¢man 1060155 Mohammed Hashlamoun 1060173 Ehab Alawi 1051449 Instructor: Ms. Randa Al- Asmar Date of experiment: 25-03-2008 Date of submitting: 01-04-2008 Ã¢â¬Å"Determination of water content used to prepare standardized gypsum samples and the determination of the final setting for gypsumÃ¢â¬ Introduction: In civil engineering, gypsum plays a role as a building material that contributes to many products such as cement and plaster. We will write a custom essay sample on Gypsum Seting Time or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this experiment, we investigated some properties considering hardening of gypsum, such as the standard water content and setting time. Aim of the experiment: Ã¢â¬â Determination of the proper water content to prepare gypsum paste samples Ã¢â¬â Determination of the final setting time for gypsum paste. Theory: Standard water content: amount of water added to gypsum to form a paste thatÃ¢â¬â¢d allow the pointer of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s apparatus to descend to a point (30-32) mm above the base of the mold. Setting time of Gypsum: the amount of time that passes from the moment of adding water to the gypsum paste (would be already determined); to the moment that VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s needle would descend to reach 3 mm above the base of the mold. Apparatus: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the water content: Ã¢â¬â Vicat apparatus Ã¢â¬â Balance Ã¢â¬â Metal tray Ã¢â¬â Graduated cylinder Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the setting time for gypsum: Ã¢â¬â VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s apparatus (the pointer is replaced by VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s needle of 10 mm diameter. Ã¢â¬â Stop watch Procedure: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the water content: . A 200 gm sample of gypsum is prepared, and put over a plate, to be added with a specified amount of water. 2. The gypsum is mixed thoroughly with water for 3 minutes, to form a moist paste. 3. A part of the paste is poured in the VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold, until the mold is filled completely with the paste and the surface of the mold is rimmed. 4. VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold is applied on the ba se of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s device. The pointer of the device is adjusted to just touch the surface of the mold, then left to fall freely under the influence of its weight. . The reading of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s pointer is taken. This reading indicates the depth that the pointer has reached above the base of the mold. 6. The experiment is repeated using a new sample each time; until the standard water content is reached (VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s needle would reach a height of (30-32) mm above the base of the mold. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the setting time for gypsum: 1. A 200 gm sample of gypsum is prepared. The amount of water determined in the previous experiment is added to the sample. 2. The gypsum is mixed thoroughly with water for 3 minutes, to form a moist paste, and then part of the paste is poured in the VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold, until the mold is filled completely with the paste and the surface of the mold is rimmed. 3. VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold is applied on the base of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s device. The needle of the device is adjusted to just touch the surface of the mold, then left to fall freely under the influence of its weight. 4. The reading of the deviceÃ¢â¬â¢s pointer is taken, until we reach a reading of 3mm. 5. The time needed for the needle of the device would descend to a height of 3mm above the base of the mold is recorded using a stop watch. Data and calculations: |measured depth |The amount |Trial no. | |from the base (mm) |of added water (%) | | |39 |48 |1 | |34 |49 |2 | |35 |48. |3 | |32 |50 |4 | |50 |Standard water content (%) | |4. 16 |setting time (minutes) | Conclusion: As we can see from the results, the standard water content needed to prepare a standard gypsum paste = 50%, and we obtained a setting time = 4. 16, which compared to other building materials considered quick hardening. This advantage increases the role of gypsum as a component in Portland cement and plaster industry.  Engineering use: Gypsum is considered very valuable from the economical and industrial side, since it can be found a lot in nature. It can be used to manufacture plaster moldings (ceramic industry and engineering industry). Also gypsum plays apart in cement industry (for example: Gypsum cement and Portland cement). Many new techniques have been developed get benefit from gypsum and Portland cement. these techniques uses both the advantages of gypsum (early hardening, high early strength, enhanced workability) and Portland cement (improved durability in moist conditions), but are free of the deleterious effect of ettringite and thaumasite, which are formed when gypsum and Portland cement interact. Such properties enhance the workability of cement.  References: : http://www. sciencedirect. com/science? _ob=ArticleURL=B6V2G-4BRRGD8-2=10=1==search=d=c=C000050221=1=0=10=4e71cbde7aba9b4d1338fea79920ab39 : http://www. sciencedirect. com/science? _ob=ArticleURL=B6TWG-40GRJTP-7=10=1==search=d=c=C000050221=1=0=10=5c7ed60e8eed63f2ad9c9a5412b00080 : http://www. apitco. org/Profiles/Gypsum%20based%20building%20materials. pdf How to cite Gypsum Seting Time, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: What Is The Environment On Supply Chain Process? Answer: Introduction Supply chain management is conceptualized as the backbone of current business organisations. The supply chain strategy rolls out by depending on product availability, market coverage, and revenue recognition. The customers become much interested in knowing the method of purchasing any particular product when this is introduced to the market. Any glitches found in the product can drop out the sales parameter of the organisation. Therefore, it is necessary to design the transportation and delivery process of the products in an effective way. Business organisations can make the remarkable profits by adopting the most effective supply chain management. The customers for this supply chain management process are the people in New Zealand who tend to consume the organic and processed milk for maintaining good health. The customers are even focusing on receiving a good distribution channel for the delivery of the milk. The study will explore the supply chain management procedure of Mainfreight Warehouse Logistics located in New Zealand market. The company needs to undertake a fruitful and commendable delivery process for Anchor Milk Dairy Product. The study will propose a suitable supply chain framework for the organisation to ensure beneficial profits. The other possible optimization process of supply chain management will be discussed by analyzing the environmental impacts. The study will also highlight the financial implication for the proposed supply chain process. Furthermore, the research paper would present the suggestions to control the policies for the stock items. Background of the Company Mainfreight Warehouse and Logistics ltd. is a global logistic service provider (Sbc.org.nz, 2017). The company has been associated with the delivery and logistic process of the products with the properly managed warehousing services. The company has been serving both the international market and the domestic market in (Emmanouilidis, Taisch Kiritsis, 2013). The mission of the company is to continue expansion of the global footprint with the most effective logistic services. The headquarters of Meinfreight is based in Auckland, New Zealand. The company maintains the unique work culture by associating almost 6400 staffs. In a broader look, it has been noticed that Meinfreight is embodying the special people, special company (Mainfreight.com, 2017). The 100 year vision of the company is widely focusing on the approaches in supply chain process with the help of efficient employees. The company operates within diverse market that ranges from goods, retail products, home appliances, furnit ure, dairy products, foods, and beverages. The logistic program is linked with the global system for fulfilling the needs of the potential customers. The high coverage of the company is beneficial for the shipments of the products to the clients on timely manner (Ifama.org, 2017). The company is generally capitalizes from on the changing demands of the customers. The company maintains the proper communication and coordination through emailing, telephoning and meeting the customers directly. The maintenance of the coordination between the warehouse and the shipment point is much remarkable in the supply chain process. Mainfreight is also concerned about the categorization of the globally based customers. The logistics services are mainly depending on the value based approaches for the money paid by the customers (Stadtler, 2015). Therefore, the company is even focusing on using the high impactful and fully advanced technologies for the supply chain process. Especially, in case of establishing the high transit technologies for the inventory management is quite beneficial for providing the customers proper goods and services via logistics process. The use of the GSM network is providing the customers a platform for placing their order through the websites. This initiative is much helpful in making the company more strengthen in participating in the global competitive landscape. Currently, the company is focusing on undertaking the effective supply chain management procedures to deliver the high quality Anchor Milk to the clients with the help of advanced technological suggestions. The study will thu s discuss the suitable supply chain management and integration management for supplying the Anchor Milk and make profits. Accordingly, the effects of environment will also be discussed to understand the fruitful method of supply chain process. The financial implications will be suggested for the proposed supply chain procedure in this case. Suppliers Selection of the suppliers who can meet the expectation level of the consumers is not an easier approach. It requires following the proper considerations that sometimes involves initial costs. In order to select the suitable supplier for the supply chain process, it is essential to pay attention on the following criteria. The judgment of the stakeholders opinion is essential before selecting the suitable supplier for the supply chain process (Monczka et al., 2015). It is necessary to judge the capabilities and compared prices for the potential suppliers. The supplier selected for the supply chain process requires ensuring the delivery commitments, resource savings capabilities, reliable and much responsive towards the work. Measurement of the supply process is essential for selecting the preferable supplier for the process (Wisner, Tan Leong, 2014). The supplier program is one of the beneficial methods of selecting the efficient supplier for the products. It is necessary to gather the feedback from the suppliers by utilizing the self-assessment questionnaire. The supplier assessment criteria would refer to the performance gaps that will be fruitful enough in identifying the operational segments. Development of the partnerships between the manufacturer and the suppliers would be essential for selecting the proper supplier for the product. Communicating with the suppliers will be beneficial in such cases (Dekker et al., 2013). The supplier quality management is needed to be ensured by depending on the materials and ingredients. If the relationship with the supplier is strong, it can be ensured that the supplier would provide the high quality services. These steps are essential to select the potential suppliers for the supply chain management. Similarly, it is notified that Mainfreight Ltd. has been supplying the different ranges of products by ensuring high quality and effective inventory management. Therefore, the company can be the suitable supplier to distribute the Anchor Milk to the customers in the New Zealand market. Flow Mainfreight Ltd. needs to pay attention to the establishment of the network. The following diagram can be beneficial in defining the necessary supply chain process for supplying Anchor Milk to New Zealand market Diagram 1: Supply Chain Diagram for Milk Supply (Source: Pagell Shevchenko, 2014) Mainfreight Limited has to face the direct competition with APL Logistics and CEVA Group Plc. The corporate strategy undertaken by these logistic companies is much threatening for Mainfreight to maintain the sustainable position. Therefore, it is essential for the company to undertake the significant method of supply chain management. The above diagram explains the different stages that are needed to be considered while undertaking the supply chain process of milk. These stages include cooperatives, farmers, supermarkets, and the processors. The processing is as follows: Stage 1: The involvement of the farmers is necessary in this stage. The cows at the dairy farm need to be milked for two times in a day. The milk is then needed to be stored in the refrigerator for next two days. Stage 2: The tankers of the refrigerator need to collect the milk from the silo that is placed in the diary farm. The milk will then be transferred to the processing factory for the packaging purposes. Stage 3: In the processing factories, the pasteurization process is performed. The pasteurized milk is stored in the refrigerator silo after processing for one more time (Aya?, Samanlioglu Bykzkan, 2013). It is one of the most helpful for making the milk free from the harmful bacteria. Stage 4: The processed milk will be transported to the refrigerated tanker for manufacturing milk. The manufacturing process needs to be performed in a sequential manner. Stage 5: The manufacturers usually provide the focus on producing diverse dairy products made off milk. After packaging the milk, it is then induced into the pallets and delivered to the refrigerated trucks. Stage 6: The final stage determines the transportation of the milk pallets and then into the refrigerated trucks. These pallets will then be delivered to the retail outlets of the supermarkets. Maintaining such supply chain process flow will be much beneficial in delivering the high quality Anchor Milk to the customers all across the country. However, it is even essential to identify the needs of the customers and establish the effective relationship with the clients, such as the retailers (Mylan et al., 2015). The maintenance of these stages would be effective enough in scheduling the supply chain process in a significant way. Supply Chain Optimization The seasonal changes in the milk composition and milk supply require the proper and intact planning in the supply chain process. It is essential to propose a suitable supply chain management framework that will be beneficial for Mainfreight Ltd. to restructure the inventory management. It is to be indicated that composition of milk depends on several factors such as, selection breeding, feeding capacity, environmental impacts, psychological pathways, and manipulating the rumen micro-organisms. On the other hand, Sel and Bilge (2015) opined that the decisions for manufacturing need to be made by concentrating on the demands and market price of the products. Apart from such demands and process, it is even essential to understanding the processing restriction and the manufacturing capacity as well. Mainfreight Ltd. has been well organizing the supply chain network with the evaluation of the highly advanced technologies. However, it is essential for the company to pay attention towards the proper implications on the dairy product supply chain process. According to Govindan et al., (2014), DSCM (Dairy Supply Chain Model) was utilized for studying the market demands for some of the specific dairy products. It also focuses on the changes in the milk composition by the farm that has the clear impact on the manufacturing performance of the dairy industry in New Zealand. The development of the supply chain process model will be beneficial to understand the proposed process for milk supply. The model suggests four main features of DSCM. These four major features are: Schedule for Milk Supply and Optimization Process Profiles for Product Demand Policies for Inventory Replenishment Restrictions in the manufacturing process 1) Schedule and Optimization of Milk Supply At the initial stage of this process, the weekly volume and the compositions like casein, fat, and whey protein and lactose are supplied to the processing plants as per the proposed schedule. The optimization process in this schedule is deciding how the farms schedule the processing plants within the proper model and structure (Pagell Shevchenko, 2014). With the help of the optimization routine, Mainfreight can even decide the remarkable and profitable product mix for supplying milk on weekly basis. After scheduling the products, these will be placed in the inventories until the orders are filled up. 2) Profiles for Product Demand The preparation of the product demand profile is based on the specification and needs of each product. The consumption rate of the product is outlined every year by considering the capability of distribution use that has the clear reflection on the consumption variability. Hence, it can be suggested that the company can categorized the products by understanding the product demands for each of the features (Seuring, 2013). For example, customers prefer the use of lactose or high minerals while consuming milk. Hence, the processed milk needs to be of high quality and it also needs to be checked in the inventory management. 3) Policies of Inventory Replenishment The policies of inventory replenishment depend on the periodic ordering of the products for maintaining the proper level of inventory management (Govindan, Soleimani Kannan, 2015). The policies are largely focusing on the safety and target levels of the final products that are to be delivered to the clients through supply chain process. Mainfreight Ltd. needs to pay attention to the unit of inventory replenishment policies of delivering Anchor Milk. 4) Restriction in manufacturing process During the manufacturing process, the maximum and the minimum product batch sizes are affecting the replenishment policies. These effects are mostly seen when the order is placed for filling the inventory. The minimum batch size of the products is 1000 unit whereas the maximum batch size of the products is 10,000 units (Hlsmann, Scholz-Reiter Windt, 2011). This situation can restrict the manufacturing process in a significant manner. The dairy simulation sub-model was previously outlined for replicating the liquid milk manufacturing process and distributing in the inventory movements. This model is also useful for creating the demand profile along with the policies of inventory replenishment for the final products for meeting the needs of the consumers. On the other hand, the dairy optimization model is developed for optimizing the return of any specific schedule associated with the milk supply process (Lewis et al., 2013). The dairy products can be manufactured by the changing the quantity and the type of the schedule. These two models are technically linked with each other. It is essential to ensure the weekly inventory levels for meeting the demands and expectations of the customers regarding the consumptions of milk. The information will be then transferred to the inventories files. The company can use the Dairy Optimization Sub-Model for defining the optimum product mix that is meeting the needs of the poten tial customers in the market (Sabri, 2015). The results are needed to be taken into account to ensure the feasibility of the market mix. Impact of Environment on Supply Chain Process It has been observed that majority of the dairy products are consumed in the place where those are actually produced. Milk, being the most demanding dairy products, serves the society as the nutrient products and the key plank of food security. The start contrast of milk in New Zealand is less than 4% of the consumed milk than the other countries. The population of New Zealand is quite small and it produces almost 21 billion liters of milk per year. Even though not exclusively, the client base is mostly in off shore areas in New Zealand (Ross 2015). The supply chain process of milk in New Zealand is even sometimes depending on the other countries that are not much self-sufficient for the dairy products. The focus on the global trade of the dairy products in New Zealand is thus much significant. However, it has been observed that the impact of the environment on the supply chain process of milk is quite recognizable. The growth of the pasteurization is much dependent on the weather. T he New Zealand farmers need to undertake a range of effective management practices for making the profitable balance between the demand and supply of the feed (Christopher, 2016). The farmers can even reduce the milking process by if the pasture falls short to supply. It helps in reducing the number of cows by drying off early and gathering the unproductive cows. During the early season, the farmers attempt to boost up the growth of pasture with the help of nitrogen fertilizers and feeding supplements to the cows. However, it is notable that the supply chain process sometimes has the potentiality to cause the environmental degradation, be it during the manufacturing or disposal process. The existing policies related to the environmental factors are mainly concentrating on the large scale of the pollutions (Crosson Needles, 2013). For example, the dairy farms are supposedly creating environmental pollution more specifically. The product stewardship is introduced for protecting the s upply chain process from the marketing effects of environment. The product stewardship is conceptualized as product-centered approach that is applied to protect the social and environmental consideration. It involves the product life cycle procedures like product manufacturing, retail uses, disposers, sharing responsibility for the environmental benefits, and improvement of the quality of life. In terms of managing the environmental impact, it is necessary to reduce the carbon footprints during the product packaging process. These carbon footprints are responsible for creating the environmental pollution hence, it is essential to recognize the cost-effective solutions to mitigate the issues associated with the environmental impacts. Mainfreight Ltd. is even focusing on using the high impactful and fully advanced technologies for the supply chain process. Especially, in case of establishing the high transit technologies for the inventory management is quite beneficial for providing the customers proper goods and services via logistics process. The use of these technologies is much helpful in managing the environmental impact. The concentration on building the proper relationship with the client and managing corporate social responsibility, the effects of the environment can be reduced. Many of the manufacturers are seen to be more conscious about the productivity and these impacts of the environment (Cheng Choi, 2010). In such cases, it will be much effective to reduce the costs of the supply chain process and foster the market innovations. Providing the proper value based services to the customers will be ensuring the lesser number of the environmental effects. The retailers also need to maintain the proper res ponsibility in developing the product stewardships. The improvement of the packaging system will be effective enough in reducing the environmental impact and establishing the remarkable supply chain process. Role of the cost in determining the Purchasing behavior It is essential to undertake the systematic approach to establish a value added supply chain process. Mainfreight Ltd. needs to ensure the procedure of cutting the costs to influence the purchasing decisions of the customers. The following aspects can be taken into consideration to minimize the costs and attract the customers towards the products.Understanding the basic needs and demands of the customers are essential for the suppliers. Once the suppliers can understand the expectations, the effective customer services can be planned accordingly. The value added services provided to the customers would be effective enough to incur costs and undertake an effective supply chain process (Emmanouilidis, Taisch Kiritsis, 2013). Structuring the supply chain strategy is necessary by documenting the expectation criteria of the customers and the existing functional process of the company. The recognition of the needs would be helpful enough in improving the supply chain procedure. The enormo us competition in the market is persuading the suppliers to undertake the innovative procedure to influence the buying behaviour of the customers. The technological inventions are usually providing the customers more opportunities to select the suitable products among the number of choice. Pricing the goods is thus necessary for attracting the customers. Keeping the high prices of the goods would not be preferable to the customers in most of the cases. Hence, keeping the low cost of the products will attract more customers. In order to do so, the company needs to cut down the operational costs. The complete market research and identifying the innovative procedures would be beneficial in influencing the buying behaviour of the target customers. Implication of TCO In general term, TCO is conceptualized as the cost ownership that is more inclined towards selling the products at a very low rate by comparing to the costs of other company products. Many of the organisations try to manufacture the goods at a cheaper rate. The cost savings from the operational activities requires maintaining flexibility in the integration process. However, it is to be determined that the organisation requires deploying the workforce as well as the product delivery process during the manufacturing process (Crosson Needles, 2013). The return relieved after selling the products will thus be much profitable in usual cases. It is much helpful in improving the supply chain process and will help in retaining the customers. Another most beneficial approach of TOC is the improvement of the communication transparency. It helps in establishing the linkage or communication between the customers and the suppliers. Hence, the TOC implication is much beneficial for the supply cha in process. Control Policies for the Stock Items According to Ross (2015), the process of inventory control depends on the supervision, coordination, distribution, storage capacity, and recording the materials. However, Mainfreight Ltd. needs to consider some of the Control Policies for the items to be stock in their supply chain management. The implications are provided below: Establishment of the annual stocking policies would decide the minimum and maximum stock level. During the distribution or logistic process, it is essential for the firm to cross-check the policies whether it is correctly maintained. Accordingly, the firm will get the idea about the available stocks of the products. Preparing the inventory budget will be essential for the inventory stocking. The preparation of the inventory budget is essential to ensure the capital expenses on the inventory management. In fact, the firms would get the idea about the different departments that need some exclusive budget planning. The company requires maintaining a perpetual inventory system. The inventory system is helpful in organizing the supply chain process in a sequential way. It is important for the company to calculate the turnover ratio to store the product stock. Reviewing the calculation report, it will be helpful in structuring the financial planning for the future prospects by investing the profit amount. Establishing the optimized purchasing procedures requires the adequate number of the control (Lewis et al., 2013). It is the responsibility of the management to adopt the suitable purchasing procedure that has the linking with the demand pattern data. Maintenance of these policies would be beneficial for Mainfreight Ltd. to store the product stock items. On the other hand, the concentration on the secure and safer approaches will also be necessary for the company. Conclusion The study aims to identify the remarkable procedure of supply chain by Mainfreight Ltd. The company is much renowned for the efficient logistic process and shipment facilities. Mainfreight Ltd is undertaking the most effective supply chain management process to supply Anchor Milk to the customers of New Zealand. The study discusses the commendable supply management flow that is helpful enough to supply the milk to the people across the country. The value added services provided to the customers would be effective enough to incur costs and undertake an effective supply chain process. Structuring the supply chain strategy is necessary by documenting the expectation criteria of the customers and the existing functional process of the company. The recognition of the needs would be helpful enough in improving the supply chain procedure. The enormous competition in the market is persuading the suppliers to undertake the innovative procedure to influence the buying behaviour of the customer s. The study also suggests the establishment of the proper relationship between the suppliers and the customers References Aya?, Z., Samanlioglu, F., Bykzkan, G. (2013). A fuzzy QFD approach to determine supply chain management strategies in the dairy industry.Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing,24(6), 1111-1122. Cheng, T. E., Choi, T. M. (Eds.). (2010).Innovative quick response programs in logistics and supply chain management. Springer Science Business Media. Christopher, M. (2016).Logistics supply chain management. Pearson UK. Crosson, S. V., Needles, B. E. (2013).Managerial accounting. Cengage Learning. Dekker, R., Fleischmann, M., Inderfurth, K., van Wassenhove, L. N. (Eds.). (2013).Reverse logistics: quantitative models for closed-loop supply chains. Springer Science Business Media. Emmanouilidis, C., Taisch, M., Kiritsis, D. (Eds.). (2013).Advances in Production Management Systems. Competitive Manufacturing for Innovative Products and Services: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2012, Rhodes, Greece, September 24-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers(Vol. 398). Springer. Emmanouilidis, C., Taisch, M., Kiritsis, D. (Eds.). (2013).Advances in Production Management Systems. Competitive Manufacturing for Innovative Products and Services: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2012, Rhodes, Greece, September 24-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers(Vol. 398). Springer. Govindan, K., Azevedo, S. G., Carvalho, H., Cruz-Machado, V. (2014). Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability.Journal of Cleaner Production,85, 212-225. Govindan, K., Soleimani, H., Kannan, D. (2015). Reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain: A comprehensive review to explore the future.European Journal of Operational Research,240(3), 603-626. Hlsmann, M., Scholz-Reiter, B., Windt, K. (Eds.). (2011).Autonomous Cooperation and Control in Logistics: Contributions and Limitations-Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. Springer Science Business Media. Ifama.org, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.ifama.org/resources/Documents/v19ib/14_Shadbolt.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Lewis, A., Pacyk, T., Ross, D., Wintle, R. (2013).Microsoft Lync Server 2013 Unleashed. Sams Publishing Mainfreight.com, (2017).Mainfreight - Global Supply Chain Logistics. [online] Mainfreight. Available at: https://www.mainfreight.com/global/en/global-home.aspx# [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Monczka, R. M., Handfield, R. B., Giunipero, L. C., Patterson, J. L. (2015).Purchasing and supply chain management. Cengage Learning. Mylan, J., Geels, F. W., Gee, S., McMeekin, A., Foster, C. (2015). Eco-innovation and retailers in milk, beef and bread chains: enriching environmental supply chain management with insights from innovation studies.Journal of Cleaner Production,107, 20-30. Pagell, M., Shevchenko, A. (2014). Why research in sustainable supply chain management should have no future.Journal of supply chain management,50(1), 44-55. Ross, D. F. (2015).Distribution Planning and control: managing in the era of supply chain management. Springer. Sabri, E. (Ed.). (2015).Optimization of supply chain management in contemporary organizations. IGI Global. Sbc.org.nz, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.sbc.org.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/54914/Sustainable-Supply-Chain-Guide.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Sel, ., Bilgen, B. (2015). Quantitative models for supply chain management within dairy industry: a review and discussion.European Journal of Industrial Engineering,9(5), 561-594. Seuring, S. (2013). A review of modeling approaches for sustainable supply chain management.Decision support systems,54(4), 1513-1520. Stadtler, H. (2015). Supply chain management: An overview. InSupply chain management and advanced planning(pp. 3-28). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Wisner, J. D., Tan, K. C., Leong, G. K. (2014).Principles of supply chain management: A balanced approach. Cengage Learning.