Friday, November 29, 2019
Working as a Healthcare Professional The healthcare aspect of the society is indeed a valuable concern for the people since their lives and health conditions depend greatly on the quality of the service the healthcare professionals can serve (Holroyd et al, 2004). Because of these, healthcare profession is constantly being improved and developed by implementing new and innovative policies to address each of the significant issue that is rising on the daily basis. However, since the healthcare professional is largely composed of human beings that are willing to implement service to the society, political issues are also being encountered in the present, which deals with the concerns of the said people. According to the interviewed manager in the field, the healthcare profession is composed of individual implementing service for the people. Because of this principle, the professionals in this field manifest as the basic units building the whole healthcare aspect. Thus as the basic units, they must be consulted of their op inions regarding the current political issues in their field. This concept is mainly logically since these are the people who know the very critical matters in their profession as they are practicing them in everyday basis. (interviewee) In addition, healthcare professional can be viewed as the most concerned people with regards to the said profession since they themselves are the ones held most accountable for the said aspect (Hughes, 2004). Because of which, their opinions and suggestions regarding policies in the political aspect of healthcare is indeed significant in establishing the best possible solution for each predicament. Need essay sample on "Working as a Healthcare Professional" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Take for example the issue of developing a more comprehensive emergency healthcare procedure mainly on the aspect of political hierarchy of control over a specific condition or scenario (Holroyd et al, 2004 & Hughes, 2004). The most ideal approach to undertake in this issue is to consult the opinion of each involved healthcare profession since they are the people who practically mastered their work and they will be the ones most affected with the new policy. Outside organization must only manage the lobbying procedure but still, most consultation must be towards the healthcare personnel. The most important concept is that ideas and opinions of the healthcare personnel must be prioritized in addressing the political issues regarding the aspect of healthcare profession in service towards the society. Being in the management team of the healthcare institutions is not an easy task. However, with the collaboration of the other members within the work, getting through with all the challenges pertaining to managing people within the healthcare institutions becomes a more effective process. What are the main reasons for the existence of management teams in healthcare institutions? Primarily, the said professions mission is to imply outstanding process of providing healthcare service to patients according to the pattern followed by the institutions within the said section of social service as noted in the AHQR [Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality] guidelines. AHRQs primary concern is to raise the quality of healthcare services for the society mainly the ones being rendered by the hospital institutions through evaluating their present administrative system. Thus, they have developed different that measures various aspect of healthcare quality namely prevention quality indicators, inpatient quality indicators, patient safety indicators, and pediatric quality indicators. Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) are mainly modules that can be used with hospital inpatient discharge data in identifying the quality of healthcare for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. This module is primarily about the conditions for early treatment preventing further hospitalization of good outpatient and intervention procedures in preventing further complications of the patients health status. Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQI) are mainly modules that provide perspective on hospital quality using hospital administrative data. This module actually reflects the quality of healthcare service being rendered by the institution inside their hospitals and the domain of their facilities. In addition, this module includes inpatient mortality for certain procedures and medical conditions; utilization of procedures for which there are questions of overuse, underuse, and misuse; and volume of procedures for which there is some evidence that a higher volume of procedures is associated with lower mortality. Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) primarily evaluates the health conditions and safety of the patient within the facilities of the hospital institution that includes reports for potential dangers, hospitalization complications, and adverse events following or before certain healthcare operations. This module helps system leaders and administrative division in identifying potential complications thus developing precautionary actions and developments. Pediatric Quality Indicators are mainly modules for measuring the quality of service for pediatric healthcare basing from the hospitals inpatient discharge data. This module specifically evaluates possible problems and complications brought about by the exposure of the pediatric patients to the healthcare system of the institution thus creating amenable preventive measures and actions and further improvement concepts on the institutions pediatric system. Thus, the quality of healthcare service presently rendered by the hospital institution is significantly important for the promoting of the basic principles of healthcare itself. With this concept, indeed the institutions healthcare administration should be constantly monitored to determined possible dangers and complications and thus, developing protective measures and safety programs for the development itself of the hospitals service. Administering the said healthcare evaluating modules is also considerably meticulous and complicated at some point however, the benefits these modules can raise through providing important qualitative information is generally more relevant than previous aspect. Thus, evaluating the quality of the healthcare service being rendered by the hospitals administration is indeed important as both a precautionary and preventive measures for possible complications and in developing further the present condition of the said institution for more efficient and eff ective healthcare service. Yes, through this process of meeting the needs of the patients and providing them with the excellent service that they deserve, the reason for the existence of the management team in healthcare institutions becomes meaningful for the development of the systems of healthcare provisions that they are dealing with. Knowing these particular notes about being a manager in the field of healthcare services increases the authors knowledge on how he is supposed to deal with the situations of the different patients that he has to deal with later on in the job. It could be observed that from the research and interview presented herein that the process of managing people could only be successful as the management follows a legitimate pattern to increase performance competencies provided by the experts of the field that they are serving. From this, it could be noted then that this study then served the best value that it could for the author of this paper. Bibliography Holroyd, Bryan R. 194. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2004.00601.x. Hughes, Geoffrey (2004). Political Issues in Emergency Medicine: The United Kingdom. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 16 (5-6), 387393. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2004.00641.x. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (July 2004). AHRQ Quality Indicators. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://qualityindicators.ahrq.gov/index.htm. (August 2, 2008).
Monday, November 25, 2019
Girl Culture Lauren GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibition Girl Culture captures the unique yet widely shared experience of growing up female. Greenfield uses vivid color photographs along with textual interviews of the subjects to explore what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to grow up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial society. She exposes the contrasting ideals that young girls are taught about the importance of being an individual, but also are constantly bombarded through various medias to our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s narrow ideals of beauty and sexual appeal. Through her photographs Greenfield reveals the details of this superficial culture, explores the environment of growing up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, and the influential fashion industry. The media influences how girls see themselves and also how others perceive them, the body has become the only way for girls to express themselves. The media is a substantial influence on our society. It projects the idea that in order to be happy and successful you must conform to a certain beauty standard. This idea has done serious damage to young girls who are still trying to form their own identity. Our commercial culture has taught them that to be happy one must conform strictly to this image of beauty. In GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibit, many of the girls expressed their feelings of the pressure to conform. Ã¢â¬Å"There is so much peer pressure . . . but with the fact that everybody has to look the same . . . You have to be the same supermodel everyone else isÃ¢â¬ . For girls from other cultures, it is easy for them to see how American culture emphasizes appearance. Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢re brought up here [America], youÃ¢â¬â¢re taught that you have to look good to succeed, that beauty gets you what you want and gets you where you need to go. I have noticed how, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re overweight, people treat you differently . . . And itÃ¢â¬â¢s everywhere. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not like something that only a small portion of people do. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of people now, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s gett... Free Essays on Girl Culture Free Essays on Girl Culture Girl Culture Lauren GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibition Girl Culture captures the unique yet widely shared experience of growing up female. Greenfield uses vivid color photographs along with textual interviews of the subjects to explore what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to grow up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial society. She exposes the contrasting ideals that young girls are taught about the importance of being an individual, but also are constantly bombarded through various medias to our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s narrow ideals of beauty and sexual appeal. Through her photographs Greenfield reveals the details of this superficial culture, explores the environment of growing up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, and the influential fashion industry. The media influences how girls see themselves and also how others perceive them, the body has become the only way for girls to express themselves. The media is a substantial influence on our society. It projects the idea that in order to be happy and successful you must conform to a certain beauty standard. This idea has done serious damage to young girls who are still trying to form their own identity. Our commercial culture has taught them that to be happy one must conform strictly to this image of beauty. In GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibit, many of the girls expressed their feelings of the pressure to conform. Ã¢â¬Å"There is so much peer pressure . . . but with the fact that everybody has to look the same . . . You have to be the same supermodel everyone else isÃ¢â¬ . For girls from other cultures, it is easy for them to see how American culture emphasizes appearance. Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢re brought up here [America], youÃ¢â¬â¢re taught that you have to look good to succeed, that beauty gets you what you want and gets you where you need to go. I have noticed how, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re overweight, people treat you differently . . . And itÃ¢â¬â¢s everywhere. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not like something that only a small portion of people do. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of people now, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s gett...
Friday, November 22, 2019
The paintings of 2 wheel building - Essay Example The paintings of the house display the modernist housing that tries to displace the immersed relationship traditional notions about housing, the exterior and interior decorations of this house designed by Goldfinger as initially considered by many experts of architectural arts as the manifestos of modernity, the paintings and decorations in the interior sections of the two wheel building allows for an experience of the atmosphere that matches the conditions in the nineteenth century dwellings. The paintings of 2 wheel building communicate the architect Goldfinger's feeling about life. The paint decoration designs of the two wheel road house portrays a strange attraction, since it provides an aesthetic procedure that can be used to legitimate Goldfinger's understanding of what life pertains. It is understood that Golfinger's main motive in designing the 2 wheel house was to get a permanent resident for his family the interior designs that include the painting works of the house is the main painting of what he understood about life. In any architectural work, the architect can use the paintings to communicate the association of his understanding in regard to the real life perspective. This relationship aids in communicating the designers feeling about life. The exterior decoration gives the two wheel house unique appearance. The exterior decoration of the two wheel road house is made of stone, bricks, and concrete that makes it look as a hybrid project as it is not made to have the general modern.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Parent Involvement for the 21st Century - Essay Example Apart of providing good and properly designed education, all of the schools highly recommend the involvement of parents in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s education process. In the 21st century where education is a necessary and sufficient condition to be successful, parents who integrate education from homes and involves in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s education play positive parts in making their child or children successful. Particularly in early childhood period, children want to be guided by someone elder except their instructors and want their assistance in making different decisions. Hence parentÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in childÃ¢â¬â¢s education process not only helps in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic life but is also considered of vital importance later in their lives and in the development of their personalities. ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s Guidance and Monitoring ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic life has always been appreciated. Since early childhood and early academics, childre n feel more confident and assured that they are being supported by their guardians in every activity. ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s support not only helps in improving childÃ¢â¬â¢s grades but also develop positive aspects in their personalities. It is also useful when the child gets diverted from studies and indulge in other activities which are not suitable for his/her academic career. The parents may forcefully revert the child towards education by providing proper guidance and handling him/her correctly. Educationists are of the view that parentÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance in academics and their frequent meetings with the instructor about the childÃ¢â¬â¢s betterment are extremely necessary and useful for their childÃ¢â¬â¢s own benefit. The child came to know that all of his/her activities are monitored and discussed; so he/she tries to be as good as possible. In this way the particular child remains unique from those who are not supported and provided with parentÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance. Issues regardin g 21st century Although this century came along with as many beneficial technologies as one can think of, which have made the lives easier and comfortable; yet the machine maker himself has become a machine. Yes, indeed, the humans who invented all these hi-tech gadgets present themselves as a working machine too, with very less emotions and feelings. It is an unfortunate fact that the parents of 21st century do not pay any attention to their children as they canÃ¢â¬â¢t find time for their kids. No doubt that going to work and earning is also an essential element of life, but still, the children are suffering as the parents are not providing them with their guidance in academics and in other modes of life. Now a days there has been an issue of single parents with which many countries are suffering. It is very challenging and very hard for such parents to manage simultaneously their families and their jobs. They must have to earn in order to keep the standard of life and to keep an y kind of financial burdens away from their children. On the other hand, such children who have single parents to live with are found to less confident and less involved in their academics since their parents cannot contribute a piece of time for them. Research indicates that even if very little time, say up to 15 minutes, are given to a child by his/her parents in which the constructive and positive conversation takes place about the activities and academics of the child, then it would
Monday, November 18, 2019
Unemployment - Research Paper Example Extensive research over multiple aspects of unemployment has revealed that the past unemployment results in change of preferences such as prices and constraints, affecting the levels of future unemployment as well. Individuals differ in certain unmeasured variables that, if not properly controlled, have influential impact on levels of unemployment. There exists, however, no universally acceptable definition of unemployment so far because both employed and unemployed people worldwide are measured quite differently.Over the last few decades, the progressive world economies have, though slowly, recognized the complexity and seriousness of growing unemployment issues at last. However, various scholars and economic organizations have provided with more generalized definitions of unemployment. The most widely referred definition from the International Labor Organization states that unemployment Ã¢â¬Å"occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively looked for work within the pas t four weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force.Ã¢â¬ According to the Census Bureau, Ã¢â¬Å"unemployed persons include those who did not work at all during the survey week, and who were looking for work. Also included are persons who would have been looking for work except that (a) they were temporary ill, (b) they expected to return to a job from which they had been laid off for an indefinite period, or (c) they believed no work was available in their line of work or in the community.Ã¢â¬ Unemployment can also be defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"An economic condition marked by the fact that individuals actively seeking jobs remain un-hired. Unemployment is expressed as a percentage of the total available work force. The level of unemployment varies with economic conditions and other circumstances.Ã¢â¬ (Investor words, 20 09). Students, children, retired personnel or people not interested in a paid job are not inclusive, however. Categorized on basis of causes and consequences, there are four major types of unemployment in macroeconomics. Frictional unemployment - People who are re-entering (are between jobs) or entering for the first time or after absence from work usually experience short-term unemployment called frictional unemployment. This kind of unemployment is sometimes considered beneficial as it provides time to individuals, organizations and societies to find better jobs build suitable workforce and improve services respectively. Structural unemployment Ã¢â¬â Unemployment also occurs if there are both jobs and workers available but the skills required for a job are not matching workersÃ¢â¬â¢ experience. This situation often results due to changes in structural economies and lasts for several years (long-term). For example, jobs are available in oil and gas industry and workers have sk ills with textile industry, there is a mismatch of skills leading to Structural unemployment. Seasonal unemployment Ã¢â¬â Sometimes, changes in weather, tourist activities or other seasonal factors results in short-term unemployment of related people called Seasonal unemployment. For example, some people experience joblessness as the construction activity slows down during extreme winters. Cyclic unemployment Ã¢â¬â Due to prolonged periods of recession, production outputs are reduced causing joblessness. Previous employees lose jobs and entrants have fewer openings to search. As business cycle is actively involved, this type of unemployment is called Cyclic unemployment. This is long-term and considered as the most severe kind of unemployment. When joblessness due business cycle is minimized to zero, economists say that we have reached full employment. Rise in level of unemployment is considered among the most worrisome economic problems. Due to gradual adjustments according t o the market equilibrium price and quantity over time, there exists no
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Have Discount Retailers gone upmarket in the UK? Preliminary Information Working Title of Dissertation: Have Discount Retailers gone upmarket in the UK? If so, how and why? Research Question and aim: To investigate location of Aldi and Lidl stores in relation to income/social class of catchment area(compare 1991, 2001 and 2011 census data) to understand store strategy. Why would more affluent household shop at hard discounters? Understand hard discounters non-locational strategy. Introduction The review aims to look at theoretical explanations of retailers change such as the Wheel of Retailing and the Conflict Theory. It then focuses on research studies which try to understand consumers store choice decision and factors influencing it. Finally, it will briefly look at methods which are used to understand retailers store decisions. All the sources are either books or peer-reviewed journal articles. Understanding the current literature available is important as it would help support my research findings and improve my research methods based on other academics research. The most widely used model in explaining retail growth is the Wheel of Retailing created by McNair in 1958. The details of his work are mostly described in Hollander (1960) work. The model describes most retailer start as a low margin or focuses on low prices such as the discount grocery retailers. Investment in facilities and services increases, therefore, leads to increasing cost and price with its emphasis on service which allows a higher profit margin. This leaves a gap for lower margin retailers to enter the market which will make traditional retailers vulnerable to competition.ÃâÃ Hollander also identified the factors causing the changes which are Management Deterioration, price competition and excess capacity in factories. The Retail life cycle is a similar theory propose by Davidson et al (1976) cited in Levy et al (2005). It describes 4 stages of a retailer: Introduction, Growth, Maturity and decline. The focus is the profit level and the market share whereas the Wheel of Retailing focuses on the price-quality continuum. Sparks (1990) case study on Kwik Save provides an excellent case study on how it has progressed through the cycle with the name discount removed from their store in 1986 suggesting a move to the maturing stage. These cyclical theories are simple to understand and supportive examples can be found, however, Roth and Klein (1993) found that it is very difficult to test it with limited expense data and Brown (1991) criticise that it only considers price and quality and ignores other factors such as assortments and store size. Also, it assumes that there is only one path to retail growth, therefore alternative theories such as the Big Middle (Levy et al, 2005) was developed. It considers another path of development through innovation targeting at a higher income market which then moves into the Big Middle to benefit from economies of scale and where there is the highest demand focusing on services. There are also non- cyclical theories. The conflict theory suggests competition is the main reason for changes in retailing. Stores can be classified as thesis which has higher margins and antithesis which have a lower margin (such as discounters). Over time, a merger could occur which will lead to synthesis to reduce competition or increased price competition through introduction of value private labels (Burt and Sparks, 1994). Changes in the environment also encourage retail changes. Levy et al (2005) mentioned Dresseman s(1968) work which uses Darwins natural selection theory as an analogy for retail changes where only the fittest store will survive. Roth and Klein (1993) also identifies environmental factors such as demographics, regulation and demand encourage retailers to adapt otherwise they would be outcompeted. Overall, the theories suggest that retailer change due to a changing environment and try to avoid competition, especially price which is the focus of retailers who just joined the market. Consumers store choice Understanding consumers shopping behaviour is important as it allows retailers to strategically plan their store location, format and the assortments. Therefore, this is an area which is widely researched. Fox and Sethuraman (2010) and Leszczyc et al (2004) provides a summary of consumers store choice and segmentation. There are three types of consumers: price, service seekers and cheery-pickers. Price seekers are usually from lower income households who are more price conscious (Katsaras et al., 2001) and would travel to an everyday low pricing (EDLP) stores which are usually cheaper, larger stores to do their main shopping. This includes the deep-discounters. For service seekers who usually are single household who have a higher income and time-deprived due to work commitments, they therefore value convenience store more which provides better services such as Tesco Express Shops. They are known as High/Low Price Store (Hilo) who offers discount by promotion. When doing a Multi-Purp ose Trips, both groups will visit stores near shopping centres and would visit both types of stores. The final type of shopper is the cherry-pickers who go to different stores to look for the best deals, hence they would visit both types of stores and have a lot of time to do shopping but also has the lowest loyalty to a brand or store. Apart from price and convenience, assortment is another factor affecting store choice. Briesch et al (2009) found that it is the 3rd most important factor and it is measured in Store Keeping Units (SKU). Generally, store size is used as a proxy for assortments hence EDLP stores usually has higher SKUs and are more attractive to customers who want choice. However, Broniarczyk et al (1998) study found that retailers could make significant reduction in SKUs and customers perception will remain the same. Briesch et al (2009) also concluded that only the number of brands and availability of favourite brands would affect store choice suggesting assortment could be less important than brands in consumers store choice decision. Brands can be separated into private labels and National brand. The UK is a unique market that the private labels are stronger than in continental Europe. For example, Tesco own private label has three grades: Value, Finest, Normal (Krafft and Mantrala, 2010) which is different from other countries where private labels are seen as low cost and quality(Burt, 2000) hence able to directly compete with National Brand. In the same paper, he mentioned previous studies in the USA by Myers, 1967 found that there is no socio-economic difference in choosing National or private brands but Liversey and Lennin (1978) found that more affluent and young people are more likely to take risks to buy new national brands than lower income people. Hence there is no clear consensus whether private and national brands are targeting different groups. During economic recession, people become more price orientated hence Hard-Discounters would be popular during the period as their price are 15-40% cheaper than traditional retailer (Lamey, 2014). According to Colla (1994) study, he found that 1/3 of people in the sample thinks that the quality in discounters is high due to the basic display hence shop from them. This means traditional retailer are not only competing with hard discounter on price but also on its quality which means after recession, these customers are very likely to be retained. Also, this shows different customer has different view on factors such as quality, therefore different literature provides a different view and there is no consensus on the most important factor. It is now becoming common for retailers to use models to help decide where stores should be located. The three methods that will be discussed are Regression, GIS and Spatial Interaction Model. Regression can be used to accurately predict how one factor affects another with known values. This allows understanding of the relative importance of each factor. Leszczyc and Timmermans (1997) work used regression to analyse variables such as income with repeated trips, store loyalty etc. using data collected from consumer. GIS can be used to help to understand store location decision by doing simple catchment area analysis. This involves drawing a buffer of a certain travel time or distance on the program to show how far people would travel to a store (Benoit and Clarke, 1997). Neighbourhood data could also be incorporated which will help to identify potential new site and analyse current store strategy of a retailer. However, this paper and Birkin et al (2002) raises issues of using the method. How should the buffer be defined and when the buffers overlap, how can we allocate the number of consumers or revenue to each store? The second problem could be solved by using a spatial interaction model which according to Brown (1993), it considers the Trade-off between distance and attractiveness of alternative of shopping area. Hence revenue can be allocated according to the attractiveness (e.g. Floorspace) and its accessibility relative to another. This will improve the accuracy of the analysis. The literature review showed that a wide range of theories have been constructed to understand changes in retail and through research has been done on consumers behaviour and how they are analysed. However, more research is still needed in understanding customers perception of different store types as results still vary a lot. The review of the methods helped me to consider other methods to analyse the relationship between discount retailers and income and the store choice review would help me with the questionnaire design to understand consumer behaviour for discount retailers. Finally, the theory review would help explain the findings in GIS analysis. References Benoit, D. and Clarke, G.P. 1997. Assessing GIS for retail location planning. Journal of retailing and consumer services. 4(4), pp.239-258. Birkin, M., Clarke, G.P. and Clarke, M. 2002. Retail Geography and intelligent network planning. Chichester: Wiley. Briesch, R.A., Chintagunta, P.K. and Fox, E.J. 2009. How does assortment affect grocery store choice? Journal of Marketing Research. 46(2), pp.176-189. Broniarczyk, S.M., Hoyer, W.D. and McAlister, L. 1998. Consumers perceptions of the assortment offered in a grocery category: The impact of item reduction. Journal of Marketing Research. pp.166-176. Brown, S. 1991. Variations on a marketing enigma: The wheel of retailing theory. Journal of Marketing Management. 7(2), pp.131-155. Brown, S. 1993. Retail location theory: evolution and evaluation. International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. 3(2), pp.185-229. Burt, S. 2000. The strategic role of retail brands in British grocery retailing. European Journal of Marketing. 34(8), pp.875-890. Burt, S. and Sparks, L. 1994. Structural change in grocery retailing in Great Britain: a discount reorientation? The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. 4(2), pp.195-217. Colla, E. 1994. Discount development in france: The introduction of the format and the competitive response. Journal of Marketing Management. 10(7), pp.645-654. Fox, E.J. and Sethuraman, R. 2010. Retail Competition. In: Krafft, M. and Mantrala, M.K. eds. Retailing in the 21st century, current and future trends. [Online].London: Springer, pp.239-255. [Accessed 19 March 2017]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9783540720034 Hollander, S.C. 1960. The Wheel of Retailing. Journal of Marketing. 25(1), pp.37-42. Katsaras, N., Wolfson, P., Kinsey, J. and Senauer, B. 2001. Data mining: A segmentation analysis of US grocery shoppers. St. Paul, MN: The University of Minnesota, The Retail Food Industry Center, Working Paper. p01. Krafft, M. and Mantrala, M.K. 2010. Retailing in the 21st century: current and future trends. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Lamey, L. 2014. Hard economic times: a dream for discounters. European Journal of Marketing. 48(3/4), pp.641-656. Leszczyc, P.T.P., Sinha, A. and Sahgal, A. 2004. The effect of multi-purpose shopping on pricing and location strategy for grocery stores. Journal of Retailing. 80(2), pp.85-99. Leszczyc, P.T.P. and Timmermans, H. 1997. Store-switching behavior. Marketing Letters. 8(2), pp.193-204. Levy, M., Grewal, D., Peterson, R.A. and Connolly, B. 2005. The concept of the Big Middle. Journal of Retailing. 81(2), pp.83-88. Roth, V.J. and Klein, S. 1993. A theory of retail change. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. 3(2), pp.167-183. Sparks, L. 1990. Spatial-Structural Relationships in Retail Corporate Growth: A Case-Study of Kwik Save Group P.L.C. The Service Industries Journal. 10(1), pp.25-84.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Causes of the Cold War Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Cold War occurred during a time of rebuilding for Europe. It characterized international relations and dominated the foreign policies of Europe. It affected all of Europe and determined lasting alliances. The Cold War was caused by the social climate and tension in Europe at the end of World War II and by the increasing power struggles between the Soviet Union. Economic separation between the Soviets and the west also heightened tensions, along with the threat of nuclear war. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One main conflict between the Soviet Union was the vast ideological differences. One of the main tenets of communism is that capitalism is inherently bad and posed a threat to the working class. The communists view all capitalist nations as possible enemies. According to them, capitalism will eventually destroy itself and it is their duty to help it along. They refuse cooperation between themselves and capitalist nations ideologically. These extensive differences in beliefs widened the gap between the Soviet Union and the west. Another cause of the Cold War was the Soviet Unions control over Eastern Europe and the forming of economic alliances in reaction. At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union began transforming the newly freed countries and engulfed them one by one until all of Eastern Europe was part of the Soviet Union. The United States became alarmed with the growing of communism in Europe and set up...
Monday, November 11, 2019
Education is a key of success.No human begins are able to survive properly without education,especially when living in this era.Education tells men how to think,work and make a proper decision.Therefore girls should have be given the same education as boys. Olden people like to differentiate between girls and boys.They assumption that boys should give extra education, because in the future, boys will become the head of the family and need to provide money to their family.while for girls they should just stay at home and give an education about getting ready to marriage. This are wrong.In my personal opinion,girls should have the opportunity to excel in studies too.they should be allowed to pursue their own interests.Giving this opportunity will allow them to be more independent.Moreover,with this opportunity will allow the girls to support their family to have a better standard of living. Being a soul bread winner is not easy,especially when living in a development countries like Sin gapore. We need a partner to support you in order to improve or have a better standard of living. This can only help if the partner have the education. Hence, this had already support the statement that girls should be given akin education as boys. Nowadays, Girls had improved a lot in term of studies.i can see many successful faces from the women side.As an example,in my classroom the Notable ones will always come from the girls. There are faces from the boys,but what i am trying to say that girls can also study and excel in education.Girls are more perfectionist and more careful towards work,and i believe that girls can do more better than boys.Girls can study everything that boys are studying. All human are born equal.God gives everyone brain,and there are no different between girls and boys brain.It is just a different how they socialized.God gives a similar brain to each of everyone of us. There are no pretext that girls should not get the same education as boys. Detractors will argue that girls and boys are different. girls should not have be given exactly the same type of education as boys.boys should work and therefore they need to be more educated. While for girls they need to take care of their children and family.It is a waste of time giving them the same knowledge as boys. Hence,they should not get the same knowledge as boys. Yes,this is true.men are responsible to find an income for the family,the y need the education to find an income.But without giving the same education to theÃ girls how can they teach their children in the future. Therefore, they need the knowledge too.Moreover,before their marriage they need to work and find their own income. they need the education for them to go out and work. Hence,i strongly agree that girls and boys should be given exactly the same type of education.Without education people cannot read,write and even communicate to others.Therefore,education is important to everyone,regardless of genders.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
?1. What is empowerment? To give permission or power to do something; in simple words it means to give the confidence to do something Increasing the political, spiritual or economic capacity of individuals in a society 2. Education plays a very important part in improving individualÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and social development 3. It is very important today that both men and women should be educated if we want our society and economy to be prosperous 4. Why is empowering girls through education very important in contemporary Islamic society? Educating girls brings many benefits to society. As educated mother gives importance to education and they invest more in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling and this improves societyÃ¢â¬â¢s development prospect. They strongly believe and practice family planning. They give equal importance to education, health and increase the productivity of future generation. And if they are not educated then the productivity and capacity of future generation will be low. 5. What are some of the benefits of empowering women through education? As female education rises, fertility, population growth, and infant and child mortality fall and family health improves. Increases in girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ secondary school enrollment are associated with increases in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the labor force and their contributions to household and national income. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s increased earning capacity, in turn, has a positive effect on child nutrition. Children Ã¢â¬â especially daughters Ã¢â¬â of educated mothers are more likely to be enrolled in school and to have higher levels of educational attainment. Educated women are more politically active and better informed about their legal rights and how to exercise them. Thus womenÃ¢â¬â¢s education should be taken as a serious issue and steps should be taken to bring awareness about importance of education among every woman both in urban and rural area. This way many of the social problems like poverty, begging, child labor, child marriage and child mortality will be controlled up to some extent. 6. Negative attitudes of parents toward educating daughters can also be one of the biggest barriers to a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Many parents think educating sons is an investment because the sons will be responsible for caring for aging parents. On the other hand, parents may see the education of daughters a waste of money because the girls are not expected to make economical contribution in the family. They are expected to take care of family and carry out household chores. Promoting girls education therefore involves changing attitude across society merely spending money on girls education will not solve this problem. The attitude can be changed when the gender gap is reduced and when the society is aware that educating women will bring about better consequences. Seminars can be arranged where importance of women empowerment is laid. Other important things that would help in making girlÃ¢â¬â¢s empowerment through education a success is the availability of financial resources. One of the biggest barrier to education is poverty there it is very important that such people who cannot afford sending their daughters to school, for them school fee should be abolished. 7. What are some of the challenges of empowering women? Gender gaps in parts of various regions are one of the biggest challenges. It is still thought that educating sons is more important as compared to daughters Many parents are not comfortable in sending their daughters to school It is just not enough to make education available more important is that it should be of good quality. Schools should have well qualified teachers. 8. Both governments and non-government organizations should come forward in empowering women through education. Government and private organizations need to make an extra effort to ensure that education is more accessible to low-income families and rural populations, with special attention to the quality of the education provided and the need for girls to complete school. Richer countries should help and support the not so poor countries by making educational investments by building up private schools and encouraging women education. Investing in female education will accelerate the economic and social development by enhancing human capital, slowing population growth, and alleviating poverty.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Nature vs. Nurture in Cry ,the beloved Country Psychologists often battle on the idea of 'Nature vs. Nurture', or the idea that people's character are decided by either genetic inheritance or their surroundings. In Cry, the Beloved Country, two brothers, John and Stephen Kumalo, are shown to have distinctly different values, although they are of the same family. Alan Paton, through his juxtaposition of John Kumalo and Stephen Kumalo, provides a correlation between a person's environment and a person's character.John Kumalo, a shopkeeper and politician, shares few characteristics in common with his brother Stephen Kumalo. John Kumalo is an inhabitant of Johannesburg and is a man accustomed to city-life. Here in Johannesburg, the city develops in John a value for money and political power. John tells Stephen that, 'Down in Ndotsheni I am nobody, .... Here in Johannesburg I am a man of some importance, of some influence. I have my own business, and when it is good, I can make ten, twelve, pounds a week'(35), showing his concern for money and political influence over his own homeland.Msimangu describes John as having 'not enough courage, for he would surely be sent to prison'(39), showing his view that while John may speak for a cause, he will not go as far as to be put in jail for it. Later, the narrator of the story says:There are some men who long for martyrdom, there are those who know that to go to prison would bring greatness to them, these are those who would go to prison not caring if it brought greatness to them or not. But John Kumalo is not one of them. There is no applause in prison. (185-186)This further shows John Kumalo as a selfish man, acting for his own good rather than the good of the people which he claims to...
Monday, November 4, 2019
The relationship between the executive, legislature and judiciary - Essay Example The orthodox approach to judicial review is therefore based upon the absolute and indivisible sovereignty of Parliament rather than the independence of the judiciary5. Oxford Professor A.V. Dicey set out the fundamental principles of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s unwritten Constitution, and the role of judges within the context of those principles by stating that the indivisibility of Parliamentary power requires that all exercise of Governmental power must be authorized by Parliament, since it is the source of all valid authority.6 As a result, the British power of judicial review would not include the power to invalidate Acts of Parliament, rather the Courts may only use their powers to constrain any abuse of powers by the other arms of Government, such as the legislative and executive branches7. However, existing provisions permit the Lords of the Appellate Committee to also participate in the legislative business of the Upper House8, thereby raising the question of validity of judicial indepe ndence. This has been addressed in the Constitutional Reform Act of 2005, which aims to strengthening democracy and enhance the credibility of public institutions9 while also recognizing the value of judicial independence and the need to preserve it.10 Furthermore, the separation of powers between the three branches of Government as spelt out by Montesquieu11 is unclear in the context of the British judicial process. In view of present threats from terrorism, the Government has enacted sweeping legislation against terrorists12 tilting.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Top Girls by Caryl Churchill - Essay Example Act 1 is set up in a fashionable restaurant in London. Marlene is celebrating with five women her promotion to the position of managing director. This scene is somehow bizarre, as all the five women have existed in varied historical epochs either real or imaginary. Somehow, all of them portray womenÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle against oppression and patriarchy. For instance, Lady Nijo is married off to the Empire of Japan at age 14 (Churchil, 12). Eventually, she ends up being a Buddhist nun. Throughout act one, all these women save for Marlene, talk of their children, and former lovers; their stories depict a sense of success, loss and destiny. Act 2 is set up at Marlene workplace. She is interviewing Jeanine for a position. Jeanine portrays the character traits of a traditional woman; her needs to marry young, and have children are despised by Marlene. In the second scene of act 2, Angie and Kit are having a discussion in JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s backyard. They speak of going to watch an x-rated film and AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to kill Joyce (her mother). Eventually, in Act 3, it is established that AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s biological mother is not Joyce but Marlene. The third scene of act 2 is set up at Top Girls employment agency on a Monday morning (Churchil, 13). Two women Win and Nell are discussing their sexual encounters with men. On arrival of Marlene, they congratulate her on accounts that she has managed to secure the position of managing director position over Howard. In act 3, Marlene ends up fighting with her sister Joyce. Joyce feels that AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s future is gloom as long as England is run by the likes of Marlene and Margret Thatcher the then Prime Minister. Joyce believes that women like Marlene have misplaced priorities. Eventually, Marlene apologizes but Joyce will have none of that. Top Girl commences in a 1980 London background of an up market restaurant. Props used on the restaurant depict elegance that can only a successful career woman can afford. In its illusory