Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Citizens of the United States of America are beyond blessed with certain rights and privileges. One of those rights and privileges we are grateful for is the very first amendment, and the first amendment is the right to freedom of speech. And the ongoing question is whether we should place limitations of the said amendment. My dad used to say Ã¢â¬Å"Without the freedom to offend we cannot fully and entirely have Freedom of speech.Ã¢â¬ Freedom of speech should be limited due to the array of dangerous ways it can be used. Anything can be seen as offensive. If a song is deemed as offensive by one person, does that mean the song is offensive and not protected by the bill of rights. Some things that seem inappropriate or obscene might hold value to it,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Our first amendment is not a license to abuse, our first amendment is a responsibility. The first amendment in further detail is, Ã¢â¬Å"First Amendment - Religion and Expression. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.Ã¢â¬ So how should we go on about putting limits on something when in the rule it says there should not be any obstacles. And why should we set limitations or boundaries in an amendment? Boundaries have to be set on the amendment because of those who can be hurt or can be offended . Offensive speech can come from everywhere, so either we can accept the crude song lyrics, racist remarks, and let people yell bomb in a busy and heavily populated airport. Or set laws and boundaries on what people are saying and where they say it. There should be limits on freedom of speech due to the array of dangerous ways it can be used. A few years back at Taft Union High School in California there was a school shooting. The shooter happened to be a student of that school, he planned the shooting the night before. He came to school late went straight to his class and pointed his shotgun at two students who people believed had bullied him both verbally and physically. Having limitations on this sort of speechShow MoreRelatedFree Speech : The Limits Of Freedom Of Speech1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReport To me Freedom of Speech is being able to say what you want, whenever you want but these days everything has become politically correct. I will explain to you what freedom of speech actually is, to what extent it is allowed, and the limits of it both online and in different countries. The definition of Freedom of Speech is the power or right to express ones opinions without censorship, restraint, or legal penalty. When freedom of speech allowed and to what extent? Freedom is speech is becomingRead MoreShould Freedom of Speech Have Limits?2085 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Should Freedom of Speech have Limits? Why or Why Not? Introduction First Amendment protection of free speech has long been recognized to be essential to democratic governance, in part because social progress would stagnate without the free exchange of ideas between citizens. However, there are practical limits to what constitutes protected free speech and these limits have been codified into law by Congress and enforced by the federal courts. This essay will argue that the First Amendment isRead MoreFreedom of Speech in America and Its Limits Essay2413 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesdemocratic nations in the world, the United States has had its own fair share of issues with hate speech. There has been a lot of controversy over whether hate speech should be regulated. In analyzing the concept of free speech, one cannot ignore that it does not occur in a vacuum. There have been all types of debasements ranging from ethnic, religious, racial and gendered stereotyping. Freedom of speech inherently includes all other fundamental human rights. Hence, as acknowled ged through natural rightsRead MoreEssay on Social Networking: Limits to Privacy and Freedom of Speech1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages According to the first amendment, citizens of the United States are guaranteed freedom of speech. My older friends and family members tell me that that is true, or at least it used to be. In our current generation there is one major factor of society where freedom of speech is extremely limited. That part of society is social networking. This leaves me to, is our generation free to express our opinions whenever we feel the urge? According to Oscar GandyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1993) perspective, Ã¢â¬Å"we probably doRead MoreThe Fundamental Principles Of The Us Constitution1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof the US Constitution is the freedom of speech. Something so ingrained in the country, that it is often an afterthought for many Americans. John Stuart Mill believes that freedom of expression and speech is a necessity for the human race to advance and evolve. MillÃ¢â¬â¢s justification of this absolute freedom come from the understanding that mistakes and choices made by the person leads to pro gress and the development of your individual self. He also argues that speech must be absolute because the onlyRead MoreFree Speech : Freedom Of Speech1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFREE SPEECH Freedom of speech is perhaps the most precious tenets of liberal democracies accorded to the citizens of the free world. The United States, and the rest of the Western society is known to be the cradle of democratic principles, and this can be evidenced by the level of freedom accorded to the citizens of the United States and the West in terms of speech. The freedom of speech gives an individual an opportunity to speak his or her mind and also give his or her opinion, sometimes on veryRead MoreFree Speech : The Benefits Of Freedom Of Speech805 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof time ever conjectured how the term freedom of speech is expressed? Freedom of speech is more than the ordinary everyday concept of the synchronization and harmony of speaking freely. In this response, we will strongly scrutinize origins and benefits regarding free speech, circumstances that may restrict free speech, free speech in Canada and determine protesters objection to Jordan Peterson. Without any hesitation, let us enact the importance of free speech concerning if campus debate should beRead MoreFree Speech vs Hate Speech Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFree Speech vs. Harmful Hate Speech Freedom of speech is instilled at the beginning of the Bill of Rights and it allows citizens of the United States to express their opinions without being afraid of what might happen to them, much like in other countries. Many times people are directly or indirectly harmed by othersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions that are considered a right under the freedom of speech clause. Though, some people worry that if we do not allow for complete freedom of speech, it is hard to figure outRead MoreFreedom of Speech Mill and Freiberg1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMEANINGFUL FREEDOM Freedom of speech is the key element of the real democracies. Freedom of speech is also concerned to the idea that people can speak freely without being stopped, or censored. Freedom of speech is briefly hallmark of democracy because democracy is based on independent thoughts of people. In a democratic society people are allowed to express their views freely and peacefully. There will be no democracy if freedom of speech isnt granted to people. Where there is freedom ofRead MoreFreedom Of Speech : Free Speech1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFreedom Of Speech In 399 B.C, the Greek Philosopher Socrates was persecuted for an early argument promoting free speech. Later on, The Protection of Speech was first introduced when the Magna Carta was signed in 1215, and in 1948, the United Nations stated that free speech is a human right and drafted into the international Declaration of Human rights.The government doesn t have the right to make a law abridging the freedom of speech because Free Speech is a form of democracy and it s a fundamental
Monday, December 23, 2019
In economics, we study four basic market structures. Each market structure possesses different characteristics to one another and these characteristics are what affect the degree of competition and pricing. A monopoly and perfect competition are positioned at both ends of the spectrum while oligopoly and monopolistic competition are in the middle of the two. However, the one market structure we will be focusing on is perfect competition. The main characteristics of this market structure are all products sold are homogenous, all firms are price takers, consumers have complete information when purchasing goods, all firms have little market share and there are no barriers to entry or exit. In this essay I will be describing how firms in aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They must also be able to meet their variable costs just to keep running and must also be able to develop the new low cost technology to keep up with the other firms in the carrot industry. The graph below can be used to show how the average firms fixed costs and average total costs decrease due to the lower cost technology. In the short run the firms fixed costs would decrease from AFC1 to AFC2 and therefore the average total cost would also be reduced from ATC1 down to ATC2. Like I previously mentioned above, firms that do not possess this technology must be able to produce revenue that at least meets their average variable costs in the short run. However, Lipsey and Chrystal state that Ã¢â¬Å"If its revenue is less than its variable cost at every level of output, the firm will actually lose more by producing than not producingÃ¢â¬ . Now that I have described what occurs in the short run when firms acquire new low cost technology, this brings us over to the long run. Like I mentioned beforehand, in the long run all fixed costs eventually become variable costs. Firms that did not previously possess the low cost equipment used to produce carrots and had managed to stay In business by meeting their variable costs would now been able to also develop and obtain the required technology to reduce their costs too. Therefore, all firms in the carrot market will now possess theShow MoreRelatedShort-Run vs. Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curves644 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThere are some significant differences in the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curves. The short-run curve can be said to only apply to the short-run, and is not applicable in the long-run (No author, 2012). The difference between the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curve is assumed to be that there is a period after the price of a good or service increases but the factor inputs have not adjusted yet to this increase. A basic example would be a service provider raising prices, butRead MoreManagerial Economics Chapter 9 Essay1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswant at the market price. Which of the following statement is true when the difference between TR and TC is at its maximum positive value? MR=MC AND Slope of TR= Slope of TC When maximizing profits, MR = MC is equivalent to P = MC because The marginal revenue curve for a perfectly competitive firm is the same as its demand curve. Perfectly competitive firms should produce the quantity where The difference between total revenue and total cost is as large as possible. Profit for a perfectlyRead MoreMicro Economics Short Run Versus Long Run1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMicro Economic Exam Long Run versus Short Run 1. Introduction Competitive market equilibrium is the traditional concept of economic equilibrium, appropriate for the analysis of commodity markets with flexible prices and many traders. It relies crucially on the assumption of a competitive environment where each trader decides upon a quantity that is so small compared to the total quantity traded in the market that their individual transactions have no influence on the prices. This paperRead MoreWhat Are the Benefits of Mobile Technology1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis accompanied by an increase in the quantity demanded. | Save Question 2 (5 points) Ã A supply curve that is parallel to the horizontal axis suggests that: | 1) | the industry is organized monopolistically. | | 2) | the relationship between price and quantity supplied is inverse. | | 3) | a change in demand will change price in the same direction. | | 4) | a change in demand will change the equilibrium quantity but not price. | Save Question 3 (5 points) Ã An antidrug policyRead MoreQuestions On The Interest Rate977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseuro interest rate is 6 percent, and the expected return on dollar depreciation against the euro is zero percent, then (a) An investor should invest only in dollars. (b) An investor should invest only in euros. (c) An investor should be indifferent between dollars and euros. (d) It is impossible to tell given the information. (e) All of the above. 7. If the dollar interest rate is 10 percent, the euro interest rate is 6 percent, and the expected return on dollar depreciation against the euro is fourRead MoreThe Effect Of Monetary Policy On Determination Of Coal Prices1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestested using the Dickey Fuller generalized least squares (DF-GLS) test (Elliott et al., 1996). Panel A of Table 1 reports the results of the DF-GLS test. Since the null hypothesis of a unit root cannot (can) be rejected for any of the levels (first differences) of the three variables at the 5% level, all the series are found to be nonstationary I(1) processes. It should be emphasized, however, that because of inability of the DF-GLS to capture the possibility of a structural break, the power of the testRead MoreEconomics954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesopportunity cost in another situation then they will leave and do that. Normal profit is the minimum return, or cost necessary to keep the firm going. 5. (Short Run Versus Long Run) What distinguishes a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s short-run period from its long-run period? a. In the short run the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resources may be fixed so it cannot change its output. In the long run all resources are available and the firm can change its output and size. 6. (Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns) As a farmer, you must decide how manyRead MoreThe Market Structures Of A Market Structure962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescomparison and contrast is necessary to distinguish each of these theories from one another. These market structures of the economy are perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. These market structures will reveal the difference and similarities that each one has. Firstly, the perfection competition is a market structure that has four assumptions that define what it is to be in this market. The four assumptions include the following it has many sellers and buyers, itRead MoreEconomics Perfectly Competitive Market Structure Essay1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesselect the output level at which the difference between the marginal revenue and marginal cost is greatest. This is equivalent to selecting the output where the spread between total revenue and total cost is greatest. In the short-run, it is possible for an individual firm to make an economic profit. This situation is shown in this diagram, as the price or average revenue, denoted by P, is above the average cost denoted by C . However, in the long period, economic profit cannot be sustainedRead MoreMonopoly and Discussion Board Posts1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageselastic good. 2. Externalities Explain the difference between a positive and negative externality. In your analysis, make sure to provide an example of each type of externality. Why does the government need to get involved with externalities to bring about market efficiency? WhatÃ solutions need to be provided for your examples? Guided Response : Review the discussion board posts of your classmates. What are some of the key differences between positive and negative externality? Respond to
Sunday, December 15, 2019
g [pic] Faculty of engineering Civil engineering department ENCS 314 Building material lab Experiment No. 1516 Ã¢â¬Å"Determination of water content used to prepare gypsum samples and the determination of the final setting for gypsumÃ¢â¬ Prepared by: Rasha Abed 1031107 Partners: Hazem NoÃ¢â¬â¢man 1060155 Mohammed Hashlamoun 1060173 Ehab Alawi 1051449 Instructor: Ms. Randa Al- Asmar Date of experiment: 25-03-2008 Date of submitting: 01-04-2008 Ã¢â¬Å"Determination of water content used to prepare standardized gypsum samples and the determination of the final setting for gypsumÃ¢â¬ Introduction: In civil engineering, gypsum plays a role as a building material that contributes to many products such as cement and plaster. We will write a custom essay sample on Gypsum Seting Time or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this experiment, we investigated some properties considering hardening of gypsum, such as the standard water content and setting time. Aim of the experiment: Ã¢â¬â Determination of the proper water content to prepare gypsum paste samples Ã¢â¬â Determination of the final setting time for gypsum paste. Theory: Standard water content: amount of water added to gypsum to form a paste thatÃ¢â¬â¢d allow the pointer of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s apparatus to descend to a point (30-32) mm above the base of the mold. Setting time of Gypsum: the amount of time that passes from the moment of adding water to the gypsum paste (would be already determined); to the moment that VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s needle would descend to reach 3 mm above the base of the mold. Apparatus: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the water content: Ã¢â¬â Vicat apparatus Ã¢â¬â Balance Ã¢â¬â Metal tray Ã¢â¬â Graduated cylinder Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the setting time for gypsum: Ã¢â¬â VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s apparatus (the pointer is replaced by VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s needle of 10 mm diameter. Ã¢â¬â Stop watch Procedure: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the water content: . A 200 gm sample of gypsum is prepared, and put over a plate, to be added with a specified amount of water. 2. The gypsum is mixed thoroughly with water for 3 minutes, to form a moist paste. 3. A part of the paste is poured in the VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold, until the mold is filled completely with the paste and the surface of the mold is rimmed. 4. VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold is applied on the ba se of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s device. The pointer of the device is adjusted to just touch the surface of the mold, then left to fall freely under the influence of its weight. . The reading of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s pointer is taken. This reading indicates the depth that the pointer has reached above the base of the mold. 6. The experiment is repeated using a new sample each time; until the standard water content is reached (VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s needle would reach a height of (30-32) mm above the base of the mold. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Determination of the setting time for gypsum: 1. A 200 gm sample of gypsum is prepared. The amount of water determined in the previous experiment is added to the sample. 2. The gypsum is mixed thoroughly with water for 3 minutes, to form a moist paste, and then part of the paste is poured in the VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold, until the mold is filled completely with the paste and the surface of the mold is rimmed. 3. VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s mold is applied on the base of VicatÃ¢â¬â¢s device. The needle of the device is adjusted to just touch the surface of the mold, then left to fall freely under the influence of its weight. 4. The reading of the deviceÃ¢â¬â¢s pointer is taken, until we reach a reading of 3mm. 5. The time needed for the needle of the device would descend to a height of 3mm above the base of the mold is recorded using a stop watch. Data and calculations: |measured depth |The amount |Trial no. | |from the base (mm) |of added water (%) | | |39 |48 |1 | |34 |49 |2 | |35 |48. |3 | |32 |50 |4 | |50 |Standard water content (%) | |4. 16 |setting time (minutes) | Conclusion: As we can see from the results, the standard water content needed to prepare a standard gypsum paste = 50%, and we obtained a setting time = 4. 16, which compared to other building materials considered quick hardening. This advantage increases the role of gypsum as a component in Portland cement and plaster industry.  Engineering use: Gypsum is considered very valuable from the economical and industrial side, since it can be found a lot in nature. It can be used to manufacture plaster moldings (ceramic industry and engineering industry). Also gypsum plays apart in cement industry (for example: Gypsum cement and Portland cement). Many new techniques have been developed get benefit from gypsum and Portland cement. these techniques uses both the advantages of gypsum (early hardening, high early strength, enhanced workability) and Portland cement (improved durability in moist conditions), but are free of the deleterious effect of ettringite and thaumasite, which are formed when gypsum and Portland cement interact. Such properties enhance the workability of cement.  References: : http://www. sciencedirect. com/science? _ob=ArticleURL=B6V2G-4BRRGD8-2=10=1==search=d=c=C000050221=1=0=10=4e71cbde7aba9b4d1338fea79920ab39 : http://www. sciencedirect. com/science? _ob=ArticleURL=B6TWG-40GRJTP-7=10=1==search=d=c=C000050221=1=0=10=5c7ed60e8eed63f2ad9c9a5412b00080 : http://www. apitco. org/Profiles/Gypsum%20based%20building%20materials. pdf How to cite Gypsum Seting Time, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: What Is The Environment On Supply Chain Process? Answer: Introduction Supply chain management is conceptualized as the backbone of current business organisations. The supply chain strategy rolls out by depending on product availability, market coverage, and revenue recognition. The customers become much interested in knowing the method of purchasing any particular product when this is introduced to the market. Any glitches found in the product can drop out the sales parameter of the organisation. Therefore, it is necessary to design the transportation and delivery process of the products in an effective way. Business organisations can make the remarkable profits by adopting the most effective supply chain management. The customers for this supply chain management process are the people in New Zealand who tend to consume the organic and processed milk for maintaining good health. The customers are even focusing on receiving a good distribution channel for the delivery of the milk. The study will explore the supply chain management procedure of Mainfreight Warehouse Logistics located in New Zealand market. The company needs to undertake a fruitful and commendable delivery process for Anchor Milk Dairy Product. The study will propose a suitable supply chain framework for the organisation to ensure beneficial profits. The other possible optimization process of supply chain management will be discussed by analyzing the environmental impacts. The study will also highlight the financial implication for the proposed supply chain process. Furthermore, the research paper would present the suggestions to control the policies for the stock items. Background of the Company Mainfreight Warehouse and Logistics ltd. is a global logistic service provider (Sbc.org.nz, 2017). The company has been associated with the delivery and logistic process of the products with the properly managed warehousing services. The company has been serving both the international market and the domestic market in (Emmanouilidis, Taisch Kiritsis, 2013). The mission of the company is to continue expansion of the global footprint with the most effective logistic services. The headquarters of Meinfreight is based in Auckland, New Zealand. The company maintains the unique work culture by associating almost 6400 staffs. In a broader look, it has been noticed that Meinfreight is embodying the special people, special company (Mainfreight.com, 2017). The 100 year vision of the company is widely focusing on the approaches in supply chain process with the help of efficient employees. The company operates within diverse market that ranges from goods, retail products, home appliances, furnit ure, dairy products, foods, and beverages. The logistic program is linked with the global system for fulfilling the needs of the potential customers. The high coverage of the company is beneficial for the shipments of the products to the clients on timely manner (Ifama.org, 2017). The company is generally capitalizes from on the changing demands of the customers. The company maintains the proper communication and coordination through emailing, telephoning and meeting the customers directly. The maintenance of the coordination between the warehouse and the shipment point is much remarkable in the supply chain process. Mainfreight is also concerned about the categorization of the globally based customers. The logistics services are mainly depending on the value based approaches for the money paid by the customers (Stadtler, 2015). Therefore, the company is even focusing on using the high impactful and fully advanced technologies for the supply chain process. Especially, in case of establishing the high transit technologies for the inventory management is quite beneficial for providing the customers proper goods and services via logistics process. The use of the GSM network is providing the customers a platform for placing their order through the websites. This initiative is much helpful in making the company more strengthen in participating in the global competitive landscape. Currently, the company is focusing on undertaking the effective supply chain management procedures to deliver the high quality Anchor Milk to the clients with the help of advanced technological suggestions. The study will thu s discuss the suitable supply chain management and integration management for supplying the Anchor Milk and make profits. Accordingly, the effects of environment will also be discussed to understand the fruitful method of supply chain process. The financial implications will be suggested for the proposed supply chain procedure in this case. Suppliers Selection of the suppliers who can meet the expectation level of the consumers is not an easier approach. It requires following the proper considerations that sometimes involves initial costs. In order to select the suitable supplier for the supply chain process, it is essential to pay attention on the following criteria. The judgment of the stakeholders opinion is essential before selecting the suitable supplier for the supply chain process (Monczka et al., 2015). It is necessary to judge the capabilities and compared prices for the potential suppliers. The supplier selected for the supply chain process requires ensuring the delivery commitments, resource savings capabilities, reliable and much responsive towards the work. Measurement of the supply process is essential for selecting the preferable supplier for the process (Wisner, Tan Leong, 2014). The supplier program is one of the beneficial methods of selecting the efficient supplier for the products. It is necessary to gather the feedback from the suppliers by utilizing the self-assessment questionnaire. The supplier assessment criteria would refer to the performance gaps that will be fruitful enough in identifying the operational segments. Development of the partnerships between the manufacturer and the suppliers would be essential for selecting the proper supplier for the product. Communicating with the suppliers will be beneficial in such cases (Dekker et al., 2013). The supplier quality management is needed to be ensured by depending on the materials and ingredients. If the relationship with the supplier is strong, it can be ensured that the supplier would provide the high quality services. These steps are essential to select the potential suppliers for the supply chain management. Similarly, it is notified that Mainfreight Ltd. has been supplying the different ranges of products by ensuring high quality and effective inventory management. Therefore, the company can be the suitable supplier to distribute the Anchor Milk to the customers in the New Zealand market. Flow Mainfreight Ltd. needs to pay attention to the establishment of the network. The following diagram can be beneficial in defining the necessary supply chain process for supplying Anchor Milk to New Zealand market Diagram 1: Supply Chain Diagram for Milk Supply (Source: Pagell Shevchenko, 2014) Mainfreight Limited has to face the direct competition with APL Logistics and CEVA Group Plc. The corporate strategy undertaken by these logistic companies is much threatening for Mainfreight to maintain the sustainable position. Therefore, it is essential for the company to undertake the significant method of supply chain management. The above diagram explains the different stages that are needed to be considered while undertaking the supply chain process of milk. These stages include cooperatives, farmers, supermarkets, and the processors. The processing is as follows: Stage 1: The involvement of the farmers is necessary in this stage. The cows at the dairy farm need to be milked for two times in a day. The milk is then needed to be stored in the refrigerator for next two days. Stage 2: The tankers of the refrigerator need to collect the milk from the silo that is placed in the diary farm. The milk will then be transferred to the processing factory for the packaging purposes. Stage 3: In the processing factories, the pasteurization process is performed. The pasteurized milk is stored in the refrigerator silo after processing for one more time (Aya?, Samanlioglu Bykzkan, 2013). It is one of the most helpful for making the milk free from the harmful bacteria. Stage 4: The processed milk will be transported to the refrigerated tanker for manufacturing milk. The manufacturing process needs to be performed in a sequential manner. Stage 5: The manufacturers usually provide the focus on producing diverse dairy products made off milk. After packaging the milk, it is then induced into the pallets and delivered to the refrigerated trucks. Stage 6: The final stage determines the transportation of the milk pallets and then into the refrigerated trucks. These pallets will then be delivered to the retail outlets of the supermarkets. Maintaining such supply chain process flow will be much beneficial in delivering the high quality Anchor Milk to the customers all across the country. However, it is even essential to identify the needs of the customers and establish the effective relationship with the clients, such as the retailers (Mylan et al., 2015). The maintenance of these stages would be effective enough in scheduling the supply chain process in a significant way. Supply Chain Optimization The seasonal changes in the milk composition and milk supply require the proper and intact planning in the supply chain process. It is essential to propose a suitable supply chain management framework that will be beneficial for Mainfreight Ltd. to restructure the inventory management. It is to be indicated that composition of milk depends on several factors such as, selection breeding, feeding capacity, environmental impacts, psychological pathways, and manipulating the rumen micro-organisms. On the other hand, Sel and Bilge (2015) opined that the decisions for manufacturing need to be made by concentrating on the demands and market price of the products. Apart from such demands and process, it is even essential to understanding the processing restriction and the manufacturing capacity as well. Mainfreight Ltd. has been well organizing the supply chain network with the evaluation of the highly advanced technologies. However, it is essential for the company to pay attention towards the proper implications on the dairy product supply chain process. According to Govindan et al., (2014), DSCM (Dairy Supply Chain Model) was utilized for studying the market demands for some of the specific dairy products. It also focuses on the changes in the milk composition by the farm that has the clear impact on the manufacturing performance of the dairy industry in New Zealand. The development of the supply chain process model will be beneficial to understand the proposed process for milk supply. The model suggests four main features of DSCM. These four major features are: Schedule for Milk Supply and Optimization Process Profiles for Product Demand Policies for Inventory Replenishment Restrictions in the manufacturing process 1) Schedule and Optimization of Milk Supply At the initial stage of this process, the weekly volume and the compositions like casein, fat, and whey protein and lactose are supplied to the processing plants as per the proposed schedule. The optimization process in this schedule is deciding how the farms schedule the processing plants within the proper model and structure (Pagell Shevchenko, 2014). With the help of the optimization routine, Mainfreight can even decide the remarkable and profitable product mix for supplying milk on weekly basis. After scheduling the products, these will be placed in the inventories until the orders are filled up. 2) Profiles for Product Demand The preparation of the product demand profile is based on the specification and needs of each product. The consumption rate of the product is outlined every year by considering the capability of distribution use that has the clear reflection on the consumption variability. Hence, it can be suggested that the company can categorized the products by understanding the product demands for each of the features (Seuring, 2013). For example, customers prefer the use of lactose or high minerals while consuming milk. Hence, the processed milk needs to be of high quality and it also needs to be checked in the inventory management. 3) Policies of Inventory Replenishment The policies of inventory replenishment depend on the periodic ordering of the products for maintaining the proper level of inventory management (Govindan, Soleimani Kannan, 2015). The policies are largely focusing on the safety and target levels of the final products that are to be delivered to the clients through supply chain process. Mainfreight Ltd. needs to pay attention to the unit of inventory replenishment policies of delivering Anchor Milk. 4) Restriction in manufacturing process During the manufacturing process, the maximum and the minimum product batch sizes are affecting the replenishment policies. These effects are mostly seen when the order is placed for filling the inventory. The minimum batch size of the products is 1000 unit whereas the maximum batch size of the products is 10,000 units (Hlsmann, Scholz-Reiter Windt, 2011). This situation can restrict the manufacturing process in a significant manner. The dairy simulation sub-model was previously outlined for replicating the liquid milk manufacturing process and distributing in the inventory movements. This model is also useful for creating the demand profile along with the policies of inventory replenishment for the final products for meeting the needs of the consumers. On the other hand, the dairy optimization model is developed for optimizing the return of any specific schedule associated with the milk supply process (Lewis et al., 2013). The dairy products can be manufactured by the changing the quantity and the type of the schedule. These two models are technically linked with each other. It is essential to ensure the weekly inventory levels for meeting the demands and expectations of the customers regarding the consumptions of milk. The information will be then transferred to the inventories files. The company can use the Dairy Optimization Sub-Model for defining the optimum product mix that is meeting the needs of the poten tial customers in the market (Sabri, 2015). The results are needed to be taken into account to ensure the feasibility of the market mix. Impact of Environment on Supply Chain Process It has been observed that majority of the dairy products are consumed in the place where those are actually produced. Milk, being the most demanding dairy products, serves the society as the nutrient products and the key plank of food security. The start contrast of milk in New Zealand is less than 4% of the consumed milk than the other countries. The population of New Zealand is quite small and it produces almost 21 billion liters of milk per year. Even though not exclusively, the client base is mostly in off shore areas in New Zealand (Ross 2015). The supply chain process of milk in New Zealand is even sometimes depending on the other countries that are not much self-sufficient for the dairy products. The focus on the global trade of the dairy products in New Zealand is thus much significant. However, it has been observed that the impact of the environment on the supply chain process of milk is quite recognizable. The growth of the pasteurization is much dependent on the weather. T he New Zealand farmers need to undertake a range of effective management practices for making the profitable balance between the demand and supply of the feed (Christopher, 2016). The farmers can even reduce the milking process by if the pasture falls short to supply. It helps in reducing the number of cows by drying off early and gathering the unproductive cows. During the early season, the farmers attempt to boost up the growth of pasture with the help of nitrogen fertilizers and feeding supplements to the cows. However, it is notable that the supply chain process sometimes has the potentiality to cause the environmental degradation, be it during the manufacturing or disposal process. The existing policies related to the environmental factors are mainly concentrating on the large scale of the pollutions (Crosson Needles, 2013). For example, the dairy farms are supposedly creating environmental pollution more specifically. The product stewardship is introduced for protecting the s upply chain process from the marketing effects of environment. The product stewardship is conceptualized as product-centered approach that is applied to protect the social and environmental consideration. It involves the product life cycle procedures like product manufacturing, retail uses, disposers, sharing responsibility for the environmental benefits, and improvement of the quality of life. In terms of managing the environmental impact, it is necessary to reduce the carbon footprints during the product packaging process. These carbon footprints are responsible for creating the environmental pollution hence, it is essential to recognize the cost-effective solutions to mitigate the issues associated with the environmental impacts. Mainfreight Ltd. is even focusing on using the high impactful and fully advanced technologies for the supply chain process. Especially, in case of establishing the high transit technologies for the inventory management is quite beneficial for providing the customers proper goods and services via logistics process. The use of these technologies is much helpful in managing the environmental impact. The concentration on building the proper relationship with the client and managing corporate social responsibility, the effects of the environment can be reduced. Many of the manufacturers are seen to be more conscious about the productivity and these impacts of the environment (Cheng Choi, 2010). In such cases, it will be much effective to reduce the costs of the supply chain process and foster the market innovations. Providing the proper value based services to the customers will be ensuring the lesser number of the environmental effects. The retailers also need to maintain the proper res ponsibility in developing the product stewardships. The improvement of the packaging system will be effective enough in reducing the environmental impact and establishing the remarkable supply chain process. Role of the cost in determining the Purchasing behavior It is essential to undertake the systematic approach to establish a value added supply chain process. Mainfreight Ltd. needs to ensure the procedure of cutting the costs to influence the purchasing decisions of the customers. The following aspects can be taken into consideration to minimize the costs and attract the customers towards the products.Understanding the basic needs and demands of the customers are essential for the suppliers. Once the suppliers can understand the expectations, the effective customer services can be planned accordingly. The value added services provided to the customers would be effective enough to incur costs and undertake an effective supply chain process (Emmanouilidis, Taisch Kiritsis, 2013). Structuring the supply chain strategy is necessary by documenting the expectation criteria of the customers and the existing functional process of the company. The recognition of the needs would be helpful enough in improving the supply chain procedure. The enormo us competition in the market is persuading the suppliers to undertake the innovative procedure to influence the buying behaviour of the customers. The technological inventions are usually providing the customers more opportunities to select the suitable products among the number of choice. Pricing the goods is thus necessary for attracting the customers. Keeping the high prices of the goods would not be preferable to the customers in most of the cases. Hence, keeping the low cost of the products will attract more customers. In order to do so, the company needs to cut down the operational costs. The complete market research and identifying the innovative procedures would be beneficial in influencing the buying behaviour of the target customers. Implication of TCO In general term, TCO is conceptualized as the cost ownership that is more inclined towards selling the products at a very low rate by comparing to the costs of other company products. Many of the organisations try to manufacture the goods at a cheaper rate. The cost savings from the operational activities requires maintaining flexibility in the integration process. However, it is to be determined that the organisation requires deploying the workforce as well as the product delivery process during the manufacturing process (Crosson Needles, 2013). The return relieved after selling the products will thus be much profitable in usual cases. It is much helpful in improving the supply chain process and will help in retaining the customers. Another most beneficial approach of TOC is the improvement of the communication transparency. It helps in establishing the linkage or communication between the customers and the suppliers. Hence, the TOC implication is much beneficial for the supply cha in process. Control Policies for the Stock Items According to Ross (2015), the process of inventory control depends on the supervision, coordination, distribution, storage capacity, and recording the materials. However, Mainfreight Ltd. needs to consider some of the Control Policies for the items to be stock in their supply chain management. The implications are provided below: Establishment of the annual stocking policies would decide the minimum and maximum stock level. During the distribution or logistic process, it is essential for the firm to cross-check the policies whether it is correctly maintained. Accordingly, the firm will get the idea about the available stocks of the products. Preparing the inventory budget will be essential for the inventory stocking. The preparation of the inventory budget is essential to ensure the capital expenses on the inventory management. In fact, the firms would get the idea about the different departments that need some exclusive budget planning. The company requires maintaining a perpetual inventory system. The inventory system is helpful in organizing the supply chain process in a sequential way. It is important for the company to calculate the turnover ratio to store the product stock. Reviewing the calculation report, it will be helpful in structuring the financial planning for the future prospects by investing the profit amount. Establishing the optimized purchasing procedures requires the adequate number of the control (Lewis et al., 2013). It is the responsibility of the management to adopt the suitable purchasing procedure that has the linking with the demand pattern data. Maintenance of these policies would be beneficial for Mainfreight Ltd. to store the product stock items. On the other hand, the concentration on the secure and safer approaches will also be necessary for the company. Conclusion The study aims to identify the remarkable procedure of supply chain by Mainfreight Ltd. The company is much renowned for the efficient logistic process and shipment facilities. Mainfreight Ltd is undertaking the most effective supply chain management process to supply Anchor Milk to the customers of New Zealand. The study discusses the commendable supply management flow that is helpful enough to supply the milk to the people across the country. The value added services provided to the customers would be effective enough to incur costs and undertake an effective supply chain process. Structuring the supply chain strategy is necessary by documenting the expectation criteria of the customers and the existing functional process of the company. The recognition of the needs would be helpful enough in improving the supply chain procedure. The enormous competition in the market is persuading the suppliers to undertake the innovative procedure to influence the buying behaviour of the customer s. The study also suggests the establishment of the proper relationship between the suppliers and the customers References Aya?, Z., Samanlioglu, F., Bykzkan, G. (2013). A fuzzy QFD approach to determine supply chain management strategies in the dairy industry.Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing,24(6), 1111-1122. Cheng, T. E., Choi, T. M. (Eds.). (2010).Innovative quick response programs in logistics and supply chain management. Springer Science Business Media. Christopher, M. (2016).Logistics supply chain management. Pearson UK. Crosson, S. V., Needles, B. E. (2013).Managerial accounting. Cengage Learning. Dekker, R., Fleischmann, M., Inderfurth, K., van Wassenhove, L. N. (Eds.). (2013).Reverse logistics: quantitative models for closed-loop supply chains. Springer Science Business Media. Emmanouilidis, C., Taisch, M., Kiritsis, D. (Eds.). (2013).Advances in Production Management Systems. Competitive Manufacturing for Innovative Products and Services: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2012, Rhodes, Greece, September 24-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers(Vol. 398). Springer. Emmanouilidis, C., Taisch, M., Kiritsis, D. (Eds.). (2013).Advances in Production Management Systems. Competitive Manufacturing for Innovative Products and Services: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2012, Rhodes, Greece, September 24-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers(Vol. 398). Springer. Govindan, K., Azevedo, S. G., Carvalho, H., Cruz-Machado, V. (2014). Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability.Journal of Cleaner Production,85, 212-225. Govindan, K., Soleimani, H., Kannan, D. (2015). Reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain: A comprehensive review to explore the future.European Journal of Operational Research,240(3), 603-626. Hlsmann, M., Scholz-Reiter, B., Windt, K. (Eds.). (2011).Autonomous Cooperation and Control in Logistics: Contributions and Limitations-Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. Springer Science Business Media. Ifama.org, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.ifama.org/resources/Documents/v19ib/14_Shadbolt.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Lewis, A., Pacyk, T., Ross, D., Wintle, R. (2013).Microsoft Lync Server 2013 Unleashed. Sams Publishing Mainfreight.com, (2017).Mainfreight - Global Supply Chain Logistics. [online] Mainfreight. Available at: https://www.mainfreight.com/global/en/global-home.aspx# [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Monczka, R. M., Handfield, R. B., Giunipero, L. C., Patterson, J. L. (2015).Purchasing and supply chain management. Cengage Learning. Mylan, J., Geels, F. W., Gee, S., McMeekin, A., Foster, C. (2015). Eco-innovation and retailers in milk, beef and bread chains: enriching environmental supply chain management with insights from innovation studies.Journal of Cleaner Production,107, 20-30. Pagell, M., Shevchenko, A. (2014). Why research in sustainable supply chain management should have no future.Journal of supply chain management,50(1), 44-55. Ross, D. F. (2015).Distribution Planning and control: managing in the era of supply chain management. Springer. Sabri, E. (Ed.). (2015).Optimization of supply chain management in contemporary organizations. IGI Global. Sbc.org.nz, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.sbc.org.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/54914/Sustainable-Supply-Chain-Guide.pdf [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Sel, ., Bilgen, B. (2015). Quantitative models for supply chain management within dairy industry: a review and discussion.European Journal of Industrial Engineering,9(5), 561-594. Seuring, S. (2013). A review of modeling approaches for sustainable supply chain management.Decision support systems,54(4), 1513-1520. Stadtler, H. (2015). Supply chain management: An overview. InSupply chain management and advanced planning(pp. 3-28). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Wisner, J. D., Tan, K. C., Leong, G. K. (2014).Principles of supply chain management: A balanced approach. Cengage Learning.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Working as a Healthcare Professional The healthcare aspect of the society is indeed a valuable concern for the people since their lives and health conditions depend greatly on the quality of the service the healthcare professionals can serve (Holroyd et al, 2004). Because of these, healthcare profession is constantly being improved and developed by implementing new and innovative policies to address each of the significant issue that is rising on the daily basis. However, since the healthcare professional is largely composed of human beings that are willing to implement service to the society, political issues are also being encountered in the present, which deals with the concerns of the said people. According to the interviewed manager in the field, the healthcare profession is composed of individual implementing service for the people. Because of this principle, the professionals in this field manifest as the basic units building the whole healthcare aspect. Thus as the basic units, they must be consulted of their op inions regarding the current political issues in their field. This concept is mainly logically since these are the people who know the very critical matters in their profession as they are practicing them in everyday basis. (interviewee) In addition, healthcare professional can be viewed as the most concerned people with regards to the said profession since they themselves are the ones held most accountable for the said aspect (Hughes, 2004). Because of which, their opinions and suggestions regarding policies in the political aspect of healthcare is indeed significant in establishing the best possible solution for each predicament. Need essay sample on "Working as a Healthcare Professional" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Take for example the issue of developing a more comprehensive emergency healthcare procedure mainly on the aspect of political hierarchy of control over a specific condition or scenario (Holroyd et al, 2004 & Hughes, 2004). The most ideal approach to undertake in this issue is to consult the opinion of each involved healthcare profession since they are the people who practically mastered their work and they will be the ones most affected with the new policy. Outside organization must only manage the lobbying procedure but still, most consultation must be towards the healthcare personnel. The most important concept is that ideas and opinions of the healthcare personnel must be prioritized in addressing the political issues regarding the aspect of healthcare profession in service towards the society. Being in the management team of the healthcare institutions is not an easy task. However, with the collaboration of the other members within the work, getting through with all the challenges pertaining to managing people within the healthcare institutions becomes a more effective process. What are the main reasons for the existence of management teams in healthcare institutions? Primarily, the said professions mission is to imply outstanding process of providing healthcare service to patients according to the pattern followed by the institutions within the said section of social service as noted in the AHQR [Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality] guidelines. AHRQs primary concern is to raise the quality of healthcare services for the society mainly the ones being rendered by the hospital institutions through evaluating their present administrative system. Thus, they have developed different that measures various aspect of healthcare quality namely prevention quality indicators, inpatient quality indicators, patient safety indicators, and pediatric quality indicators. Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) are mainly modules that can be used with hospital inpatient discharge data in identifying the quality of healthcare for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions. This module is primarily about the conditions for early treatment preventing further hospitalization of good outpatient and intervention procedures in preventing further complications of the patients health status. Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQI) are mainly modules that provide perspective on hospital quality using hospital administrative data. This module actually reflects the quality of healthcare service being rendered by the institution inside their hospitals and the domain of their facilities. In addition, this module includes inpatient mortality for certain procedures and medical conditions; utilization of procedures for which there are questions of overuse, underuse, and misuse; and volume of procedures for which there is some evidence that a higher volume of procedures is associated with lower mortality. Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) primarily evaluates the health conditions and safety of the patient within the facilities of the hospital institution that includes reports for potential dangers, hospitalization complications, and adverse events following or before certain healthcare operations. This module helps system leaders and administrative division in identifying potential complications thus developing precautionary actions and developments. Pediatric Quality Indicators are mainly modules for measuring the quality of service for pediatric healthcare basing from the hospitals inpatient discharge data. This module specifically evaluates possible problems and complications brought about by the exposure of the pediatric patients to the healthcare system of the institution thus creating amenable preventive measures and actions and further improvement concepts on the institutions pediatric system. Thus, the quality of healthcare service presently rendered by the hospital institution is significantly important for the promoting of the basic principles of healthcare itself. With this concept, indeed the institutions healthcare administration should be constantly monitored to determined possible dangers and complications and thus, developing protective measures and safety programs for the development itself of the hospitals service. Administering the said healthcare evaluating modules is also considerably meticulous and complicated at some point however, the benefits these modules can raise through providing important qualitative information is generally more relevant than previous aspect. Thus, evaluating the quality of the healthcare service being rendered by the hospitals administration is indeed important as both a precautionary and preventive measures for possible complications and in developing further the present condition of the said institution for more efficient and eff ective healthcare service. Yes, through this process of meeting the needs of the patients and providing them with the excellent service that they deserve, the reason for the existence of the management team in healthcare institutions becomes meaningful for the development of the systems of healthcare provisions that they are dealing with. Knowing these particular notes about being a manager in the field of healthcare services increases the authors knowledge on how he is supposed to deal with the situations of the different patients that he has to deal with later on in the job. It could be observed that from the research and interview presented herein that the process of managing people could only be successful as the management follows a legitimate pattern to increase performance competencies provided by the experts of the field that they are serving. From this, it could be noted then that this study then served the best value that it could for the author of this paper. Bibliography Holroyd, Bryan R. 194. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2004.00601.x. Hughes, Geoffrey (2004). Political Issues in Emergency Medicine: The United Kingdom. Emergency Medicine Australasia. 16 (5-6), 387393. doi:10.1111/j.1742-6723.2004.00641.x. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (July 2004). AHRQ Quality Indicators. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://qualityindicators.ahrq.gov/index.htm. (August 2, 2008).
Monday, November 25, 2019
Girl Culture Lauren GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibition Girl Culture captures the unique yet widely shared experience of growing up female. Greenfield uses vivid color photographs along with textual interviews of the subjects to explore what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to grow up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial society. She exposes the contrasting ideals that young girls are taught about the importance of being an individual, but also are constantly bombarded through various medias to our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s narrow ideals of beauty and sexual appeal. Through her photographs Greenfield reveals the details of this superficial culture, explores the environment of growing up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, and the influential fashion industry. The media influences how girls see themselves and also how others perceive them, the body has become the only way for girls to express themselves. The media is a substantial influence on our society. It projects the idea that in order to be happy and successful you must conform to a certain beauty standard. This idea has done serious damage to young girls who are still trying to form their own identity. Our commercial culture has taught them that to be happy one must conform strictly to this image of beauty. In GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibit, many of the girls expressed their feelings of the pressure to conform. Ã¢â¬Å"There is so much peer pressure . . . but with the fact that everybody has to look the same . . . You have to be the same supermodel everyone else isÃ¢â¬ . For girls from other cultures, it is easy for them to see how American culture emphasizes appearance. Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢re brought up here [America], youÃ¢â¬â¢re taught that you have to look good to succeed, that beauty gets you what you want and gets you where you need to go. I have noticed how, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re overweight, people treat you differently . . . And itÃ¢â¬â¢s everywhere. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not like something that only a small portion of people do. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of people now, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s gett... Free Essays on Girl Culture Free Essays on Girl Culture Girl Culture Lauren GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibition Girl Culture captures the unique yet widely shared experience of growing up female. Greenfield uses vivid color photographs along with textual interviews of the subjects to explore what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to grow up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial society. She exposes the contrasting ideals that young girls are taught about the importance of being an individual, but also are constantly bombarded through various medias to our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s narrow ideals of beauty and sexual appeal. Through her photographs Greenfield reveals the details of this superficial culture, explores the environment of growing up female in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, and the influential fashion industry. The media influences how girls see themselves and also how others perceive them, the body has become the only way for girls to express themselves. The media is a substantial influence on our society. It projects the idea that in order to be happy and successful you must conform to a certain beauty standard. This idea has done serious damage to young girls who are still trying to form their own identity. Our commercial culture has taught them that to be happy one must conform strictly to this image of beauty. In GreenfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibit, many of the girls expressed their feelings of the pressure to conform. Ã¢â¬Å"There is so much peer pressure . . . but with the fact that everybody has to look the same . . . You have to be the same supermodel everyone else isÃ¢â¬ . For girls from other cultures, it is easy for them to see how American culture emphasizes appearance. Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢re brought up here [America], youÃ¢â¬â¢re taught that you have to look good to succeed, that beauty gets you what you want and gets you where you need to go. I have noticed how, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re overweight, people treat you differently . . . And itÃ¢â¬â¢s everywhere. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not like something that only a small portion of people do. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of people now, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s gett...
Friday, November 22, 2019
The paintings of 2 wheel building - Essay Example The paintings of the house display the modernist housing that tries to displace the immersed relationship traditional notions about housing, the exterior and interior decorations of this house designed by Goldfinger as initially considered by many experts of architectural arts as the manifestos of modernity, the paintings and decorations in the interior sections of the two wheel building allows for an experience of the atmosphere that matches the conditions in the nineteenth century dwellings. The paintings of 2 wheel building communicate the architect Goldfinger's feeling about life. The paint decoration designs of the two wheel road house portrays a strange attraction, since it provides an aesthetic procedure that can be used to legitimate Goldfinger's understanding of what life pertains. It is understood that Golfinger's main motive in designing the 2 wheel house was to get a permanent resident for his family the interior designs that include the painting works of the house is the main painting of what he understood about life. In any architectural work, the architect can use the paintings to communicate the association of his understanding in regard to the real life perspective. This relationship aids in communicating the designers feeling about life. The exterior decoration gives the two wheel house unique appearance. The exterior decoration of the two wheel road house is made of stone, bricks, and concrete that makes it look as a hybrid project as it is not made to have the general modern.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Parent Involvement for the 21st Century - Essay Example Apart of providing good and properly designed education, all of the schools highly recommend the involvement of parents in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s education process. In the 21st century where education is a necessary and sufficient condition to be successful, parents who integrate education from homes and involves in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s education play positive parts in making their child or children successful. Particularly in early childhood period, children want to be guided by someone elder except their instructors and want their assistance in making different decisions. Hence parentÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in childÃ¢â¬â¢s education process not only helps in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic life but is also considered of vital importance later in their lives and in the development of their personalities. ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s Guidance and Monitoring ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic life has always been appreciated. Since early childhood and early academics, childre n feel more confident and assured that they are being supported by their guardians in every activity. ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s support not only helps in improving childÃ¢â¬â¢s grades but also develop positive aspects in their personalities. It is also useful when the child gets diverted from studies and indulge in other activities which are not suitable for his/her academic career. The parents may forcefully revert the child towards education by providing proper guidance and handling him/her correctly. Educationists are of the view that parentÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance in academics and their frequent meetings with the instructor about the childÃ¢â¬â¢s betterment are extremely necessary and useful for their childÃ¢â¬â¢s own benefit. The child came to know that all of his/her activities are monitored and discussed; so he/she tries to be as good as possible. In this way the particular child remains unique from those who are not supported and provided with parentÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance. Issues regardin g 21st century Although this century came along with as many beneficial technologies as one can think of, which have made the lives easier and comfortable; yet the machine maker himself has become a machine. Yes, indeed, the humans who invented all these hi-tech gadgets present themselves as a working machine too, with very less emotions and feelings. It is an unfortunate fact that the parents of 21st century do not pay any attention to their children as they canÃ¢â¬â¢t find time for their kids. No doubt that going to work and earning is also an essential element of life, but still, the children are suffering as the parents are not providing them with their guidance in academics and in other modes of life. Now a days there has been an issue of single parents with which many countries are suffering. It is very challenging and very hard for such parents to manage simultaneously their families and their jobs. They must have to earn in order to keep the standard of life and to keep an y kind of financial burdens away from their children. On the other hand, such children who have single parents to live with are found to less confident and less involved in their academics since their parents cannot contribute a piece of time for them. Research indicates that even if very little time, say up to 15 minutes, are given to a child by his/her parents in which the constructive and positive conversation takes place about the activities and academics of the child, then it would
Monday, November 18, 2019
Unemployment - Research Paper Example Extensive research over multiple aspects of unemployment has revealed that the past unemployment results in change of preferences such as prices and constraints, affecting the levels of future unemployment as well. Individuals differ in certain unmeasured variables that, if not properly controlled, have influential impact on levels of unemployment. There exists, however, no universally acceptable definition of unemployment so far because both employed and unemployed people worldwide are measured quite differently.Over the last few decades, the progressive world economies have, though slowly, recognized the complexity and seriousness of growing unemployment issues at last. However, various scholars and economic organizations have provided with more generalized definitions of unemployment. The most widely referred definition from the International Labor Organization states that unemployment Ã¢â¬Å"occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively looked for work within the pas t four weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force.Ã¢â¬ According to the Census Bureau, Ã¢â¬Å"unemployed persons include those who did not work at all during the survey week, and who were looking for work. Also included are persons who would have been looking for work except that (a) they were temporary ill, (b) they expected to return to a job from which they had been laid off for an indefinite period, or (c) they believed no work was available in their line of work or in the community.Ã¢â¬ Unemployment can also be defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"An economic condition marked by the fact that individuals actively seeking jobs remain un-hired. Unemployment is expressed as a percentage of the total available work force. The level of unemployment varies with economic conditions and other circumstances.Ã¢â¬ (Investor words, 20 09). Students, children, retired personnel or people not interested in a paid job are not inclusive, however. Categorized on basis of causes and consequences, there are four major types of unemployment in macroeconomics. Frictional unemployment - People who are re-entering (are between jobs) or entering for the first time or after absence from work usually experience short-term unemployment called frictional unemployment. This kind of unemployment is sometimes considered beneficial as it provides time to individuals, organizations and societies to find better jobs build suitable workforce and improve services respectively. Structural unemployment Ã¢â¬â Unemployment also occurs if there are both jobs and workers available but the skills required for a job are not matching workersÃ¢â¬â¢ experience. This situation often results due to changes in structural economies and lasts for several years (long-term). For example, jobs are available in oil and gas industry and workers have sk ills with textile industry, there is a mismatch of skills leading to Structural unemployment. Seasonal unemployment Ã¢â¬â Sometimes, changes in weather, tourist activities or other seasonal factors results in short-term unemployment of related people called Seasonal unemployment. For example, some people experience joblessness as the construction activity slows down during extreme winters. Cyclic unemployment Ã¢â¬â Due to prolonged periods of recession, production outputs are reduced causing joblessness. Previous employees lose jobs and entrants have fewer openings to search. As business cycle is actively involved, this type of unemployment is called Cyclic unemployment. This is long-term and considered as the most severe kind of unemployment. When joblessness due business cycle is minimized to zero, economists say that we have reached full employment. Rise in level of unemployment is considered among the most worrisome economic problems. Due to gradual adjustments according t o the market equilibrium price and quantity over time, there exists no
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Have Discount Retailers gone upmarket in the UK? Preliminary Information Working Title of Dissertation: Have Discount Retailers gone upmarket in the UK? If so, how and why? Research Question and aim: To investigate location of Aldi and Lidl stores in relation to income/social class of catchment area(compare 1991, 2001 and 2011 census data) to understand store strategy. Why would more affluent household shop at hard discounters? Understand hard discounters non-locational strategy. Introduction The review aims to look at theoretical explanations of retailers change such as the Wheel of Retailing and the Conflict Theory. It then focuses on research studies which try to understand consumers store choice decision and factors influencing it. Finally, it will briefly look at methods which are used to understand retailers store decisions. All the sources are either books or peer-reviewed journal articles. Understanding the current literature available is important as it would help support my research findings and improve my research methods based on other academics research. The most widely used model in explaining retail growth is the Wheel of Retailing created by McNair in 1958. The details of his work are mostly described in Hollander (1960) work. The model describes most retailer start as a low margin or focuses on low prices such as the discount grocery retailers. Investment in facilities and services increases, therefore, leads to increasing cost and price with its emphasis on service which allows a higher profit margin. This leaves a gap for lower margin retailers to enter the market which will make traditional retailers vulnerable to competition.ÃâÃ Hollander also identified the factors causing the changes which are Management Deterioration, price competition and excess capacity in factories. The Retail life cycle is a similar theory propose by Davidson et al (1976) cited in Levy et al (2005). It describes 4 stages of a retailer: Introduction, Growth, Maturity and decline. The focus is the profit level and the market share whereas the Wheel of Retailing focuses on the price-quality continuum. Sparks (1990) case study on Kwik Save provides an excellent case study on how it has progressed through the cycle with the name discount removed from their store in 1986 suggesting a move to the maturing stage. These cyclical theories are simple to understand and supportive examples can be found, however, Roth and Klein (1993) found that it is very difficult to test it with limited expense data and Brown (1991) criticise that it only considers price and quality and ignores other factors such as assortments and store size. Also, it assumes that there is only one path to retail growth, therefore alternative theories such as the Big Middle (Levy et al, 2005) was developed. It considers another path of development through innovation targeting at a higher income market which then moves into the Big Middle to benefit from economies of scale and where there is the highest demand focusing on services. There are also non- cyclical theories. The conflict theory suggests competition is the main reason for changes in retailing. Stores can be classified as thesis which has higher margins and antithesis which have a lower margin (such as discounters). Over time, a merger could occur which will lead to synthesis to reduce competition or increased price competition through introduction of value private labels (Burt and Sparks, 1994). Changes in the environment also encourage retail changes. Levy et al (2005) mentioned Dresseman s(1968) work which uses Darwins natural selection theory as an analogy for retail changes where only the fittest store will survive. Roth and Klein (1993) also identifies environmental factors such as demographics, regulation and demand encourage retailers to adapt otherwise they would be outcompeted. Overall, the theories suggest that retailer change due to a changing environment and try to avoid competition, especially price which is the focus of retailers who just joined the market. Consumers store choice Understanding consumers shopping behaviour is important as it allows retailers to strategically plan their store location, format and the assortments. Therefore, this is an area which is widely researched. Fox and Sethuraman (2010) and Leszczyc et al (2004) provides a summary of consumers store choice and segmentation. There are three types of consumers: price, service seekers and cheery-pickers. Price seekers are usually from lower income households who are more price conscious (Katsaras et al., 2001) and would travel to an everyday low pricing (EDLP) stores which are usually cheaper, larger stores to do their main shopping. This includes the deep-discounters. For service seekers who usually are single household who have a higher income and time-deprived due to work commitments, they therefore value convenience store more which provides better services such as Tesco Express Shops. They are known as High/Low Price Store (Hilo) who offers discount by promotion. When doing a Multi-Purp ose Trips, both groups will visit stores near shopping centres and would visit both types of stores. The final type of shopper is the cherry-pickers who go to different stores to look for the best deals, hence they would visit both types of stores and have a lot of time to do shopping but also has the lowest loyalty to a brand or store. Apart from price and convenience, assortment is another factor affecting store choice. Briesch et al (2009) found that it is the 3rd most important factor and it is measured in Store Keeping Units (SKU). Generally, store size is used as a proxy for assortments hence EDLP stores usually has higher SKUs and are more attractive to customers who want choice. However, Broniarczyk et al (1998) study found that retailers could make significant reduction in SKUs and customers perception will remain the same. Briesch et al (2009) also concluded that only the number of brands and availability of favourite brands would affect store choice suggesting assortment could be less important than brands in consumers store choice decision. Brands can be separated into private labels and National brand. The UK is a unique market that the private labels are stronger than in continental Europe. For example, Tesco own private label has three grades: Value, Finest, Normal (Krafft and Mantrala, 2010) which is different from other countries where private labels are seen as low cost and quality(Burt, 2000) hence able to directly compete with National Brand. In the same paper, he mentioned previous studies in the USA by Myers, 1967 found that there is no socio-economic difference in choosing National or private brands but Liversey and Lennin (1978) found that more affluent and young people are more likely to take risks to buy new national brands than lower income people. Hence there is no clear consensus whether private and national brands are targeting different groups. During economic recession, people become more price orientated hence Hard-Discounters would be popular during the period as their price are 15-40% cheaper than traditional retailer (Lamey, 2014). According to Colla (1994) study, he found that 1/3 of people in the sample thinks that the quality in discounters is high due to the basic display hence shop from them. This means traditional retailer are not only competing with hard discounter on price but also on its quality which means after recession, these customers are very likely to be retained. Also, this shows different customer has different view on factors such as quality, therefore different literature provides a different view and there is no consensus on the most important factor. It is now becoming common for retailers to use models to help decide where stores should be located. The three methods that will be discussed are Regression, GIS and Spatial Interaction Model. Regression can be used to accurately predict how one factor affects another with known values. This allows understanding of the relative importance of each factor. Leszczyc and Timmermans (1997) work used regression to analyse variables such as income with repeated trips, store loyalty etc. using data collected from consumer. GIS can be used to help to understand store location decision by doing simple catchment area analysis. This involves drawing a buffer of a certain travel time or distance on the program to show how far people would travel to a store (Benoit and Clarke, 1997). Neighbourhood data could also be incorporated which will help to identify potential new site and analyse current store strategy of a retailer. However, this paper and Birkin et al (2002) raises issues of using the method. How should the buffer be defined and when the buffers overlap, how can we allocate the number of consumers or revenue to each store? The second problem could be solved by using a spatial interaction model which according to Brown (1993), it considers the Trade-off between distance and attractiveness of alternative of shopping area. Hence revenue can be allocated according to the attractiveness (e.g. Floorspace) and its accessibility relative to another. This will improve the accuracy of the analysis. The literature review showed that a wide range of theories have been constructed to understand changes in retail and through research has been done on consumers behaviour and how they are analysed. However, more research is still needed in understanding customers perception of different store types as results still vary a lot. The review of the methods helped me to consider other methods to analyse the relationship between discount retailers and income and the store choice review would help me with the questionnaire design to understand consumer behaviour for discount retailers. Finally, the theory review would help explain the findings in GIS analysis. References Benoit, D. and Clarke, G.P. 1997. Assessing GIS for retail location planning. Journal of retailing and consumer services. 4(4), pp.239-258. Birkin, M., Clarke, G.P. and Clarke, M. 2002. Retail Geography and intelligent network planning. Chichester: Wiley. Briesch, R.A., Chintagunta, P.K. and Fox, E.J. 2009. How does assortment affect grocery store choice? Journal of Marketing Research. 46(2), pp.176-189. Broniarczyk, S.M., Hoyer, W.D. and McAlister, L. 1998. Consumers perceptions of the assortment offered in a grocery category: The impact of item reduction. Journal of Marketing Research. pp.166-176. Brown, S. 1991. Variations on a marketing enigma: The wheel of retailing theory. Journal of Marketing Management. 7(2), pp.131-155. Brown, S. 1993. Retail location theory: evolution and evaluation. International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. 3(2), pp.185-229. Burt, S. 2000. The strategic role of retail brands in British grocery retailing. European Journal of Marketing. 34(8), pp.875-890. Burt, S. and Sparks, L. 1994. Structural change in grocery retailing in Great Britain: a discount reorientation? The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. 4(2), pp.195-217. Colla, E. 1994. Discount development in france: The introduction of the format and the competitive response. Journal of Marketing Management. 10(7), pp.645-654. Fox, E.J. and Sethuraman, R. 2010. Retail Competition. In: Krafft, M. and Mantrala, M.K. eds. Retailing in the 21st century, current and future trends. [Online].London: Springer, pp.239-255. [Accessed 19 March 2017]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9783540720034 Hollander, S.C. 1960. The Wheel of Retailing. Journal of Marketing. 25(1), pp.37-42. Katsaras, N., Wolfson, P., Kinsey, J. and Senauer, B. 2001. Data mining: A segmentation analysis of US grocery shoppers. St. Paul, MN: The University of Minnesota, The Retail Food Industry Center, Working Paper. p01. Krafft, M. and Mantrala, M.K. 2010. Retailing in the 21st century: current and future trends. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Lamey, L. 2014. Hard economic times: a dream for discounters. European Journal of Marketing. 48(3/4), pp.641-656. Leszczyc, P.T.P., Sinha, A. and Sahgal, A. 2004. The effect of multi-purpose shopping on pricing and location strategy for grocery stores. Journal of Retailing. 80(2), pp.85-99. Leszczyc, P.T.P. and Timmermans, H. 1997. Store-switching behavior. Marketing Letters. 8(2), pp.193-204. Levy, M., Grewal, D., Peterson, R.A. and Connolly, B. 2005. The concept of the Big Middle. Journal of Retailing. 81(2), pp.83-88. Roth, V.J. and Klein, S. 1993. A theory of retail change. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. 3(2), pp.167-183. Sparks, L. 1990. Spatial-Structural Relationships in Retail Corporate Growth: A Case-Study of Kwik Save Group P.L.C. The Service Industries Journal. 10(1), pp.25-84.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Causes of the Cold War Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Cold War occurred during a time of rebuilding for Europe. It characterized international relations and dominated the foreign policies of Europe. It affected all of Europe and determined lasting alliances. The Cold War was caused by the social climate and tension in Europe at the end of World War II and by the increasing power struggles between the Soviet Union. Economic separation between the Soviets and the west also heightened tensions, along with the threat of nuclear war. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One main conflict between the Soviet Union was the vast ideological differences. One of the main tenets of communism is that capitalism is inherently bad and posed a threat to the working class. The communists view all capitalist nations as possible enemies. According to them, capitalism will eventually destroy itself and it is their duty to help it along. They refuse cooperation between themselves and capitalist nations ideologically. These extensive differences in beliefs widened the gap between the Soviet Union and the west. Another cause of the Cold War was the Soviet Unions control over Eastern Europe and the forming of economic alliances in reaction. At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union began transforming the newly freed countries and engulfed them one by one until all of Eastern Europe was part of the Soviet Union. The United States became alarmed with the growing of communism in Europe and set up...
Monday, November 11, 2019
Education is a key of success.No human begins are able to survive properly without education,especially when living in this era.Education tells men how to think,work and make a proper decision.Therefore girls should have be given the same education as boys. Olden people like to differentiate between girls and boys.They assumption that boys should give extra education, because in the future, boys will become the head of the family and need to provide money to their family.while for girls they should just stay at home and give an education about getting ready to marriage. This are wrong.In my personal opinion,girls should have the opportunity to excel in studies too.they should be allowed to pursue their own interests.Giving this opportunity will allow them to be more independent.Moreover,with this opportunity will allow the girls to support their family to have a better standard of living. Being a soul bread winner is not easy,especially when living in a development countries like Sin gapore. We need a partner to support you in order to improve or have a better standard of living. This can only help if the partner have the education. Hence, this had already support the statement that girls should be given akin education as boys. Nowadays, Girls had improved a lot in term of studies.i can see many successful faces from the women side.As an example,in my classroom the Notable ones will always come from the girls. There are faces from the boys,but what i am trying to say that girls can also study and excel in education.Girls are more perfectionist and more careful towards work,and i believe that girls can do more better than boys.Girls can study everything that boys are studying. All human are born equal.God gives everyone brain,and there are no different between girls and boys brain.It is just a different how they socialized.God gives a similar brain to each of everyone of us. There are no pretext that girls should not get the same education as boys. Detractors will argue that girls and boys are different. girls should not have be given exactly the same type of education as boys.boys should work and therefore they need to be more educated. While for girls they need to take care of their children and family.It is a waste of time giving them the same knowledge as boys. Hence,they should not get the same knowledge as boys. Yes,this is true.men are responsible to find an income for the family,the y need the education to find an income.But without giving the same education to theÃ girls how can they teach their children in the future. Therefore, they need the knowledge too.Moreover,before their marriage they need to work and find their own income. they need the education for them to go out and work. Hence,i strongly agree that girls and boys should be given exactly the same type of education.Without education people cannot read,write and even communicate to others.Therefore,education is important to everyone,regardless of genders.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
?1. What is empowerment? To give permission or power to do something; in simple words it means to give the confidence to do something Increasing the political, spiritual or economic capacity of individuals in a society 2. Education plays a very important part in improving individualÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and social development 3. It is very important today that both men and women should be educated if we want our society and economy to be prosperous 4. Why is empowering girls through education very important in contemporary Islamic society? Educating girls brings many benefits to society. As educated mother gives importance to education and they invest more in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling and this improves societyÃ¢â¬â¢s development prospect. They strongly believe and practice family planning. They give equal importance to education, health and increase the productivity of future generation. And if they are not educated then the productivity and capacity of future generation will be low. 5. What are some of the benefits of empowering women through education? As female education rises, fertility, population growth, and infant and child mortality fall and family health improves. Increases in girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ secondary school enrollment are associated with increases in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the labor force and their contributions to household and national income. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s increased earning capacity, in turn, has a positive effect on child nutrition. Children Ã¢â¬â especially daughters Ã¢â¬â of educated mothers are more likely to be enrolled in school and to have higher levels of educational attainment. Educated women are more politically active and better informed about their legal rights and how to exercise them. Thus womenÃ¢â¬â¢s education should be taken as a serious issue and steps should be taken to bring awareness about importance of education among every woman both in urban and rural area. This way many of the social problems like poverty, begging, child labor, child marriage and child mortality will be controlled up to some extent. 6. Negative attitudes of parents toward educating daughters can also be one of the biggest barriers to a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Many parents think educating sons is an investment because the sons will be responsible for caring for aging parents. On the other hand, parents may see the education of daughters a waste of money because the girls are not expected to make economical contribution in the family. They are expected to take care of family and carry out household chores. Promoting girls education therefore involves changing attitude across society merely spending money on girls education will not solve this problem. The attitude can be changed when the gender gap is reduced and when the society is aware that educating women will bring about better consequences. Seminars can be arranged where importance of women empowerment is laid. Other important things that would help in making girlÃ¢â¬â¢s empowerment through education a success is the availability of financial resources. One of the biggest barrier to education is poverty there it is very important that such people who cannot afford sending their daughters to school, for them school fee should be abolished. 7. What are some of the challenges of empowering women? Gender gaps in parts of various regions are one of the biggest challenges. It is still thought that educating sons is more important as compared to daughters Many parents are not comfortable in sending their daughters to school It is just not enough to make education available more important is that it should be of good quality. Schools should have well qualified teachers. 8. Both governments and non-government organizations should come forward in empowering women through education. Government and private organizations need to make an extra effort to ensure that education is more accessible to low-income families and rural populations, with special attention to the quality of the education provided and the need for girls to complete school. Richer countries should help and support the not so poor countries by making educational investments by building up private schools and encouraging women education. Investing in female education will accelerate the economic and social development by enhancing human capital, slowing population growth, and alleviating poverty.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Nature vs. Nurture in Cry ,the beloved Country Psychologists often battle on the idea of 'Nature vs. Nurture', or the idea that people's character are decided by either genetic inheritance or their surroundings. In Cry, the Beloved Country, two brothers, John and Stephen Kumalo, are shown to have distinctly different values, although they are of the same family. Alan Paton, through his juxtaposition of John Kumalo and Stephen Kumalo, provides a correlation between a person's environment and a person's character.John Kumalo, a shopkeeper and politician, shares few characteristics in common with his brother Stephen Kumalo. John Kumalo is an inhabitant of Johannesburg and is a man accustomed to city-life. Here in Johannesburg, the city develops in John a value for money and political power. John tells Stephen that, 'Down in Ndotsheni I am nobody, .... Here in Johannesburg I am a man of some importance, of some influence. I have my own business, and when it is good, I can make ten, twelve, pounds a week'(35), showing his concern for money and political influence over his own homeland.Msimangu describes John as having 'not enough courage, for he would surely be sent to prison'(39), showing his view that while John may speak for a cause, he will not go as far as to be put in jail for it. Later, the narrator of the story says:There are some men who long for martyrdom, there are those who know that to go to prison would bring greatness to them, these are those who would go to prison not caring if it brought greatness to them or not. But John Kumalo is not one of them. There is no applause in prison. (185-186)This further shows John Kumalo as a selfish man, acting for his own good rather than the good of the people which he claims to...
Monday, November 4, 2019
The relationship between the executive, legislature and judiciary - Essay Example The orthodox approach to judicial review is therefore based upon the absolute and indivisible sovereignty of Parliament rather than the independence of the judiciary5. Oxford Professor A.V. Dicey set out the fundamental principles of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s unwritten Constitution, and the role of judges within the context of those principles by stating that the indivisibility of Parliamentary power requires that all exercise of Governmental power must be authorized by Parliament, since it is the source of all valid authority.6 As a result, the British power of judicial review would not include the power to invalidate Acts of Parliament, rather the Courts may only use their powers to constrain any abuse of powers by the other arms of Government, such as the legislative and executive branches7. However, existing provisions permit the Lords of the Appellate Committee to also participate in the legislative business of the Upper House8, thereby raising the question of validity of judicial indepe ndence. This has been addressed in the Constitutional Reform Act of 2005, which aims to strengthening democracy and enhance the credibility of public institutions9 while also recognizing the value of judicial independence and the need to preserve it.10 Furthermore, the separation of powers between the three branches of Government as spelt out by Montesquieu11 is unclear in the context of the British judicial process. In view of present threats from terrorism, the Government has enacted sweeping legislation against terrorists12 tilting.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Top Girls by Caryl Churchill - Essay Example Act 1 is set up in a fashionable restaurant in London. Marlene is celebrating with five women her promotion to the position of managing director. This scene is somehow bizarre, as all the five women have existed in varied historical epochs either real or imaginary. Somehow, all of them portray womenÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle against oppression and patriarchy. For instance, Lady Nijo is married off to the Empire of Japan at age 14 (Churchil, 12). Eventually, she ends up being a Buddhist nun. Throughout act one, all these women save for Marlene, talk of their children, and former lovers; their stories depict a sense of success, loss and destiny. Act 2 is set up at Marlene workplace. She is interviewing Jeanine for a position. Jeanine portrays the character traits of a traditional woman; her needs to marry young, and have children are despised by Marlene. In the second scene of act 2, Angie and Kit are having a discussion in JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s backyard. They speak of going to watch an x-rated film and AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to kill Joyce (her mother). Eventually, in Act 3, it is established that AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s biological mother is not Joyce but Marlene. The third scene of act 2 is set up at Top Girls employment agency on a Monday morning (Churchil, 13). Two women Win and Nell are discussing their sexual encounters with men. On arrival of Marlene, they congratulate her on accounts that she has managed to secure the position of managing director position over Howard. In act 3, Marlene ends up fighting with her sister Joyce. Joyce feels that AngieÃ¢â¬â¢s future is gloom as long as England is run by the likes of Marlene and Margret Thatcher the then Prime Minister. Joyce believes that women like Marlene have misplaced priorities. Eventually, Marlene apologizes but Joyce will have none of that. Top Girl commences in a 1980 London background of an up market restaurant. Props used on the restaurant depict elegance that can only a successful career woman can afford. In its illusory